Glucose Clamp Technique

Publication Title: 
Diabetes

We evaluated antihyperglycemic and anti-obese effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and its major constituent, ginsenoside Re, in obese diabetic C57BL/6J ob/ ob mice and their lean littermates. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of Panax ginseng berry extract for 12 days. On day 12, 150 mg/kg extract-treated ob/ob mice became normoglycemic (137 +/- 6.7 mg/dl) and had significantly improved glucose tolerance. The overall glucose excursion during the 2-h intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test decreased by 46% (P < 0.01) compared with vehicle-treated ob/ob mice.

Author(s): 
Attele, Anoja S.
Zhou, Yun-Ping
Xie, Jing-Tian
Wu, Ji An
Zhang, Liu
Dey, Lucy
Pugh, William
Rue, Paul A.
Polonsky, Kenneth S.
Yuan, Chun-Su
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Essential hypertension is characterized by reciprocal relations between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Cocoa flavanols stimulate production of the vasodilator nitric oxide from vascular endothelium. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test the hypothesis that consumption of cocoa may simultaneously lower blood pressure, improve endothelial dysfunction, and ameliorate insulin resistance in subjects with essential hypertension.

Author(s): 
Muniyappa, Ranganath
Hall, Gail
Kolodziej, Terrie L.
Karne, Rajaram J.
Crandon, Sonja K.
Quon, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
Diabetologia

AIMS/HYPOTHESES: High-fat diets produce obesity and glucose intolerance by promoting the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and liver. The present studies sought to identify the initial site(s) where insulin resistance develops using a moderately high-fat diet and to assess whether the bioflavonoid, quercetin, ameliorates progression of this sequence. METHODS: Four cohorts of male C57BL/6J mice were placed on diets formulated to be low-fat (10% of energy from fat), high-fat (45% of energy from fat) or high-fat plus 1.2% quercetin (wt/wt).

Author(s): 
Stewart, L. K.
Wang, Z.
Ribnicky, D.
Soileau, J. L.
Cefalu, W. T.
Gettys, T. W.
Publication Title: 
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental

Factors controlling metabolic flexibility (MF), the ability of the body to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to feeding or with insulin administration, are being actively investigated. We sought to determine the effects of race (African American vs Caucasian) and diabetes status (nondiabetic vs type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals) on MF to glucose in humans.

Author(s): 
Stull, April J.
Galgani, Jose E.
Johnson, William D.
Cefalu, William T.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used.

Author(s): 
Stull, April J.
Cash, Katherine C.
Johnson, William D.
Champagne, Catherine M.
Cefalu, William T.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

The prevalence and incidence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are higher in people treated for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection than in the general population. Identifying safe and effective interventions is a high priority. We evaluated whether the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone with exercise training improves central and peripheral insulin sensitivity more than pioglitazone alone in HIV-infected adults with insulin resistance and central adiposity.

Author(s): 
Yarasheski, Kevin E.
Cade, W. Todd
Overton, E. Turner
Mondy, Kristin E.
Hubert, Sara
Laciny, Erin
Bopp, Coco
Lassa-Claxton, Sherry
Reeds, Dominic N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Renal Nutrition: The Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation

OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in multiple patient populations, including those undergoing chronic hemodialysis (CHD). Active vitamin D deficiency has been proposed to play a role in the extent of IR observed in patients with CHD. We postulated that administration of paracalcitol, an active vitamin D medication, influences IR in patients with CHD. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Ten prevalent CHD patients receiving a stable dose of paracalcitol were recruited.

Author(s): 
Hung, Adriana M.
Sundell, Mary B.
Plotnikova, Natalia E.
Bian, Aihua
Shintani, Ayumi
Ellis, Charles D.
Siew, Edward D.
Ikizler, T. Alp
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) was shown to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity, but it is uncertain whether IF selectively influences intermediary metabolism. Such selectivity might be advantageous when adapting to periods of food abundance and food shortage. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess effects of IF on intermediary metabolism and energy expenditure.

Author(s): 
Soeters, Maarten R.
Lammers, Nicolette M.
Dubbelhuis, Peter F.
Ackermans, Mariëtte
Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.
Fliers, Eric
Sauerwein, Hans P.
Aerts, Johannes M.
Serlie, Mireille J.
Publication Title: 
Chinese Medical Journal

BACKGROUND: The persistence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms after tonsil and/or adenoid (T&A) surgery are common in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that disturbances of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in intraabdominal adipose tissue caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) from the pedo-period could facilitate the appearance of periphery insulin resistance in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

Author(s): 
Chen, Lin
Cao, Zhao-long
Han, Fang
Gao, Zhan-cheng
He, Quan-ying
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

The regulation of ob gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was investigated using a reverse transcription-competitive PCR method to quantify the mRNA level of leptin. Leptin mRNA level was highly correlated with the body mass index of 26 subjects (12 lean, 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic, and 7 obese patients). The effect of fasting on ob gene expression was investigated in 10 subjects maintained on a hypocaloric diet (1045 KJ/d) for 5 d.

Author(s): 
Vidal, H.
Auboeuf, D.
De Vos, P.
Staels, B.
Riou, J. P.
Auwerx, J.
Laville, M.

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