We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers.
Previous studies have shown that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient cells are under increased oxidative stress and undergo premature cellular senescence. The present study demonstrates that G6PD-deficient cells cultured under 3% oxygen concentration had an extended replicative lifespan, as compared with those cultured under atmospheric oxygen level. This was accompanied by a reduction in the number of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) positive and morphologically senile cells at comparable population doubling levels (PDL).
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on phosphorylase (PP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of S japonicum. METHODS: Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae for 32-38 d were treated i.g. with Art 100-300 mg.kg-1 and killed 24-72 h after treatment for collection of schistosomes. The activities of PP, LDH, and G-6-PDH were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. The activity of ATPase was measured by the rate of release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from ATP at 37 degrees C.
The current interest in malaria elimination has led to a renewed interest in drugs that can be used for mass administration to minimize malaria transmission. Primaquine (PQ) is the only generally available drug with a strong activity against mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the parasite stage responsible for transmission. Despite concerns about PQ-induced hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals, a single dose of PQ may be safe and efficacious in clearing gametocytes that persist after conventional treatment.
BACKGROUND: Chlorproguanil-dapsone (Lapdap), developed as a low-cost antimalarial, was withdrawn in 2008 after concerns about safety in G6PD deficient patients. This trial was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of CD and comparison with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) under conditions of routine use in G6PD normal and G6PD deficient patients with uncomplicated malaria in The Gambia. We also examined the effects of a common genetic variant that affects chlorproguanil metabolism on risk of treatment failure.
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. METHODS: Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ? 70 g/L or haematocrit ? 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali).
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Pailin, western Cambodia, detected as a slow parasite clearance rate in vivo. Emergence of this phenotype in western Thailand and possibly elsewhere threatens to compromise the effectiveness of all artemisinin-based combination therapies. Parasite genetics is associated with parasite clearance rate but does not account for all variation. We investigated contributions of both parasite genetics and host factors to the artemisinin-resistance phenotype in Pursat, western Cambodia.
BACKGROUND: Primaquine is a key drug for malaria elimination. In addition to being the only drug active against the dormant relapsing forms of Plasmodium vivax, primaquine is the sole effective treatment of infectious P. falciparum gametocytes, and may interrupt transmission and help contain the spread of artemisinin resistance. However, primaquine can trigger haemolysis in patients with a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDd). Poor information is available about the distribution of individuals at risk of primaquine-induced haemolysis.
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy is very effective in clearing asexual stages of malaria and reduces gametocytemia, but may not affect mature gametocytes. Primaquine is the only commercially available drug that eliminates mature gametocytes. METHODS: We conducted a 2-arm, open-label, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of single-dose primaquine (0.75 mg/kg) following treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia, in Indonesia.