Glucuronidase

Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands.

Author(s): 
Nadar, T. S.
Pillai, M. M.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

The purpose of this brief review is to highlight some of the more important advances in endocrinology of aging research over the past year. Four advances were chosen and briefly described.

Author(s): 
Bellino, Francis L.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Human Genetics

We previously identified a functional variant of KLOTHO (termed "KL-VS"), which harbors two amino acid substitutions in complete linkage disequilibrium and is associated with reduced human longevity when in homozygosity. Klotho-deficient mice display extensive arteriosclerosis when fed a normal diet, suggesting a potent genetic predisposition.

Author(s): 
Arking, Dan E.
Becker, Diane M.
Yanek, Lisa R.
Fallin, Daniele
Judge, Daniel P.
Moy, Taryn F.
Becker, Lewis C.
Dietz, Harry C.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands.

Author(s): 
Nadar, T. S.
Pillai, M. M.
Publication Title: 
Vascular Pharmacology

In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala on monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice; an experimental model for gouty arthritis and compared it with that of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Indomethacin. The anti-arthritic effect of Triphala was evaluated by measuring changes in the paw volume, lysosomal enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-alpha in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice.

Author(s): 
Sabina, E. P.
Rasool, M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The purpose of this study was to determine whether bioflavonoid glucoside O-conjugates are absorbed from the intestine in the intact form or as their aglycones following hydrolysis by intestinal beta-glucosidases. In this study, the intestinal absorption of genistin, the beta-glucoside of the isoflavone genistein, was examined in anesthetized, adult female rats fitted with indwelling biliary cannulas. To first establish whether genistein, once absorbed, was converted into unique metabolites, genistin was infused into the femoral or portal veins and bile samples quantitatively collected.

Author(s): 
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Xu, Jun
Kirk, Marion
Smith Johnson, Michelle
Sfakianos, Jeff
Barnes, Stephen
Publication Title: 
Genomics

In humans, uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) operates in opposition to glucuronidase (GUS) to control activity of diverse metabolites such as hormones by reversible conjugation with glucuronic acid. Previous data revealed that, as in mammals, these enzymes are required for plant life in that a UGT from Pisum sativum (PsUGT1) controls plant development by opposing endogenous GUS activity thereby modulating the duration of the cell cycle.

Author(s): 
Woo, Ho-Hyung
Jeong, Byeong Ryong
Hirsch, Ann M.
Hawes, Martha C.
Publication Title: 
Analytical Biochemistry

Natural forms of vitamin E are metabolized by omega-hydroxylation and beta-oxidation of the hydrophobic side chain to generate urinary-excreted 2-(beta-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (CEHC) and CEHC conjugates (sulfate, glucuronide, or glucoside). We recently showed that sulfated long-chain carboxychromanols, the conjugated intermediate beta-oxidation products, are formed from tocopherols and tocotrienols in human cells and in rats. CEHC conjugates have been quantified after being converted to its unconjugated counterpart by sulfatase/glucuronidase.

Author(s): 
Freiser, Helene
Jiang, Qing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers.

Author(s): 
Qiang, Zhiyi
Ye, Zhong
Hauck, Cathy
Murphy, Patricia A.
McCoy, Joe-Ann
Widrlechner, Mark P.
Reddy, Manju B.
Hendrich, Suzanne
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

Estrogen receptor (ER) subtype specific agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) for ERβ and propylpyrazoletriol (PPT) for ERα, are pharmacological probes used frequently to define mechanisms for estrogen actions in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analytical methodology was developed and validated for DPN and PPT, based on synthetic stable labeled analogs (DPN-d(4) and PPT-d(5)) using isotope dilution liquid chromatographic tandem electrospray mass spectrometric detection. The validated method produced high sensitivity, with detection limits of 0.04-0.07ng/ml serum.

Author(s): 
Sepehr, Estatira
Lebl-Rinnova, Marketa
Mann, Meagan K.
Pisani, Samantha L.
Churchwell, Mona I.
Korol, Donna L.
Katzenellenbogen, John A.
Doerge, Daniel R.

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