Physical activity, and specifically exercise, has been suggested as a potential treatment for drug addiction. In this review, we discuss clinical and preclinical evidence for the efficacy of exercise at different phases of the addiction process. Potential neurobiological mechanisms are also discussed focusing on interactions with dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling and chromatin remodeling in the reward pathway.
Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations.
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that glutamatergic tone in schizophrenia may vary as a function of illness duration or medication history. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the existing clinical trial database of pomaglumetad methionil (pomaglumetad) to demonstrate treatment response in targeted patient populations. METHODS: Results of the H8Y-MC-HBBM (HBBM) study and an integrated analysis based on five placebo-controlled trials were summarized.