Glutamic Acid

Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

In an earlier article entitled "Meditation may predispose to epilepsy: an insight into the alteration in brain environment induced by meditation" published in Medical Hypotheses 2005:64(3):464-7, the author has hypothesized that meditation exerts predisposing influence on epileptogenesis. The hypothesis is based on certain EEG changes and electrographic features (namely hypersynchrony and coherence of EEG activity) and increase in chemical transmitters (namely glutamate and serotonin) in the brain during the course and attainment of meditation.

Author(s): 
Jaseja, Harinder
Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

In an earlier article entitled "Meditation may predispose to epilepsy: an insight into the alteration in brain environment induced by meditation" published in Medical Hypotheses 2005:64(3):464-7, the author has hypothesized that meditation exerts predisposing influence on epileptogenesis. The hypothesis is based on certain EEG changes and electrographic features (namely hypersynchrony and coherence of EEG activity) and increase in chemical transmitters (namely glutamate and serotonin) in the brain during the course and attainment of meditation.

Author(s): 
Jaseja, Harinder
Publication Title: 
Neuromolecular Medicine

Emerging lines of evidence suggest a relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and protein sumoylation. Multiple studies have demonstrated that several of the proteins involved in the pathogenesis of ALS, including superoxide dismutase 1, fused in liposarcoma, and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), are substrates for sumoylation.

Author(s): 
Foran, Emily
Rosenblum, Lauren
Bogush, Alexey I.
Trotti, Davide
Publication Title: 
Depression and Anxiety

Depression has been likened to a state of "accelerated aging," and depressed individuals have a higher incidence of various diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and dementia. Chronic exposure to certain interlinked biochemical pathways that mediate stress-related depression may contribute to "accelerated aging," cell damage, and certain comorbid medical illnesses.

Author(s): 
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Epel, Elissa S.
Reus, Victor I.
Mellon, Synthia H.
Publication Title: 
Glia

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS that is cleared from the extracellular space by a family of high-affinity glutamate transporters. The astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is thought to carry out the uptake of the vast quantity of glutamate, and dysregulation of EAAT2 expression is involved in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders with marked excitotoxic components. Here, we present a novel epigenetic mechanism by which the human EAAT2 gene is kept in a silent state. Sequence inspection identified a classical CpG island at the EAAT2 promoter.

Author(s): 
Zschocke, J¸rgen
Allritz, Claudia
Engele, J¸rgen
Rein, Theo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)

NMDA receptors and especially the NR2B receptor subtype play a crucial role during chronic ethanol consumption and alcohol withdrawal. Therefore, the NR2B receptor subtype expression in peripheral blood cells of 32 male patients suffering from alcohol dependency were assessed through quantitative RT-PCR and to explore regulating epigenetic mechanisms, a methylation analysis was conducted using bisulfite sequencing of a fragment of the NR2B promoter region.

Author(s): 
Biermann, Teresa
Reulbach, Udo
Lenz, Bernd
Frieling, Helge
Muschler, Marc
Hillemacher, Thomas
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

The major psychotic disorders schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are etiologically complex involving both heritable and nonheritable factors. The absence of consistently replicated major genetic effects, together with evidence for lasting changes in gene expression after environmental exposures, is consistent with the concept that the biologic underpinnings of these disorders are epigenetic in form rather than DNA sequence based.

Author(s): 
Rutten, Bart P. F.
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations.

Author(s): 
Pascoli, Vincent
Cahill, Emma
Bellivier, Frank
Caboche, Jocelyne
Vanhoutte, Peter
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Synaptically released L-glutamate, the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is removed from extracellular space by fast and efficient transport mediated by several transporters; the most abundant ones are EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT1. The review first summarizes their location, functions and basic characteristics. We then look at genetics and epigenetics of EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT1 and perform in silico analyses of their promoter regions.

Author(s): 
äer˝, Omar
Sultana, Nilufa
Kashem, Mohammed Abul
Pow, David V.
Balcar, Vladimir J.
Publication Title: 
Nucleic Acids Research

The brain is built from a large number of cell types which have been historically classified using location, morphology and molecular markers. Recent research suggests an important role of epigenetics in shaping and maintaining cell identity in the brain. To elucidate the role of DNA methylation in neuronal differentiation, we developed a new protocol for separation of nuclei from the two major populations of human prefrontal cortex neurons--GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic (GLU) projection neurons.

Author(s): 
Kozlenkov, Alexey
Wang, Minghui
Roussos, Panos
Rudchenko, Sergei
Barbu, Mihaela
Bibikova, Marina
Klotzle, Brandy
Dwork, Andrew J.
Zhang, Bin
Hurd, Yasmin L.
Koonin, Eugene V.
Wegner, Michael
Dracheva, Stella

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