Glutamine

Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious dose-limiting side-effect without any FDA-approved treatment option. Prior reviews focus mostly on pharmacological interventions, but nonpharmaceutical interventions have also been evaluated.

Author(s): 
Brami, Cloé
Bao, Ting
Deng, Gary
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious dose-limiting side-effect without any FDA-approved treatment option. Prior reviews focus mostly on pharmacological interventions, but nonpharmaceutical interventions have also been evaluated.

Author(s): 
Brami, Cloé
Bao, Ting
Deng, Gary
Publication Title: 
Cell

Sir2 is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that connects metabolism with longevity in yeast, flies, and worms. Mammals have seven Sir2 homologs (SIRT1-7). We show that SIRT4 is a mitochondrial enzyme that uses NAD to ADP-ribosylate and downregulate glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. GDH is known to promote the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine, generating ATP, which promotes insulin secretion. Loss of SIRT4 in insulinoma cells activates GDH, thereby upregulating amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion.

Author(s): 
Haigis, Marcia C.
Mostoslavsky, Raul
Haigis, Kevin M.
Fahie, Kamau
Christodoulou, Danos C.
Murphy, Andrew J.
Valenzuela, David M.
Yancopoulos, George D.
Karow, Margaret
Blander, Gil
Wolberger, Cynthia
Prolla, Tomas A.
Weindruch, Richard
Alt, Frederick W.
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Hird, F. J.
Jones, I. K.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Hird, F. J.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Pharmacogenomics: Genomics-Related Research in Drug Development and Clinical Practice

No specific gene has been identified for any major psychiatric disorder, including schizophrenia, in spite of strong evidence supporting a genetic basis for these complex and devastating disorders. There are several likely reasons for this failure, ranging from poor study design with low statistical power to genetic mechanisms such as polygenic inheritance, epigenetic interactions, and pleiotropy. Most study designs currently in use are inadequate to uncover these mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.
Thiagalingam, Sam
Wilcox, Marsha
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: Central pain augmentation resulting from enhanced excitatory and/or decreased inhibitory neurotransmission is a proposed mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of functional pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia (FM). Multiple functional magnetic resonance imaging studies implicate the insula as a region of heightened neuronal activity in this condition.

Author(s): 
Harris, Richard E.
Sundgren, Pia C.
Craig, A. D.
Kirshenbaum, Eric
Sen, Ananda
Napadow, Vitaly
Clauw, Daniel J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Hepatology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that accumulates in liver disease and may contribute to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). We aimed at evaluating the association of ADMA with cognition and brain MR spectroscopy (MRS) in cirrhosis. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients with/without prior HE and non-cirrhotic controls underwent cognitive testing and ADMA determination. A subgroup underwent brain MRS [glutamine/glutamate (Glx), myoinositol (mI), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in parietal white, occipital gray, and anterior cingulated (ACC)].

Author(s): 
Bajaj, Jasmohan S.
Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep
Wade, James B.
Sanyal, Arun J.
White, Melanie B.
Noble, Nicole A.
Monteith, Pamela
Fuchs, Michael
Sterling, Richard K.
Luketic, Velimir
Bouneva, Iliana
Stravitz, Richard T.
Puri, Puneet
Kraft, Kenneth A.
Gilles, Hochong
Heuman, Douglas M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Hepatology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyponatremia (HN) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) together can impair health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and cognition in cirrhosis. We aimed at studying the effect of hyponatremia on cognition, HRQOL, and brain MR spectroscopy (MRS) independent of HE.

Author(s): 
Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep
Wade, James B.
Thacker, Leroy
Kraft, Kenneth A.
Sterling, Richard K.
Stravitz, R. Todd
Fuchs, Michael
Bouneva, Iliana
Puri, Puneet
Luketic, Velimir
Sanyal, Arun J.
Gilles, Hochong
Heuman, Douglas M.
Bajaj, Jasmohan S.
Publication Title: 
Critical Care (London, England)

INTRODUCTION: The use of glutamine as a dietary supplement is associated with a reduced risk of infection. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism could be an increase in the expression and/or functionality of Toll-like receptors (TLR), key receptors sensing infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether glutamine supplementation alters the expression and functionality of TLR2 and TLR4 in circulating monocytes of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We designed a prospective, randomized and single-blind study.

Author(s): 
Pérez-Bárcena, Jon
Crespí, Catalina
Regueiro, Verónica
Marsé, Pedro
Raurich, Joan M.
Ibáñez, Jordi
García de Lorenzo-Mateos, Abelardo
Bengoechea, José A.

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