Glutathione Disulfide

Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

The ripe fruit of Terminalia chebula RETZIUS (T. chebula RETZ) (Combretsceae), which is a native plant in India and Southeast Asia, has traditionally been used as a popular folk medicine for homeostatic, antitussive, laxative, diuretic, and cardiotonic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract of fruit of T. chebula on the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury observed in cultured rat primary hepatocytes and rat liver. Both treatment and pretreatment of the hepatocytes with the T.

Author(s): 
Lee, Hyun-Sun
Won, Nam Hee
Kim, Kyoung Heon
Lee, Hojoung
Jun, Woojin
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
Archives of Toxicology

A hepatoprotective compound was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. by consecutive solvent partitioning, followed by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The purified compound was identified as a mixture of chebulic acid and its minor isomer, neochebulic acid, with a ratio of 2:1 by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the protection of rat hepatocytes against oxidative toxicity by chebulic acid obtained from T. chebula Retz.

Author(s): 
Lee, Hyun-Sun
Jung, Sung-Hoon
Yun, Bong-Sik
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Acute stress affects cellular integrity in many tissues including the liver, but its underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential involvement of catecholamines and adrenoceptors in the regulation of acute restraint stress-induced liver injury. Restraint was achieved by placing mice in restraint tubes.

Author(s): 
Zhu, Qing
Gu, Liwei
Wang, Yimei
Jia, Li
Zhao, Zengming
Peng, Shuangqing
Lei, Linsheng
Publication Title: 
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

PURPOSE: To determine whether (R)-alpha-lipoic acid (LA) protects cultured human fetal retinal pigment epithelial (hfRPE) cells against oxidative injury and identify the pathways that may mediate protection. METHODS: Cultured hfRPE cells were pretreated with various concentrations of LA for 14 to 16 hours followed by treatment with a chemical oxidant, tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH; 0.8 mM, 3 hours). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell viability were measured using H(2)DCF and MTT assays, respectively.

Author(s): 
Voloboueva, Ludmila A.
Liu, Jiankang
Suh, Jung H.
Ames, Bruce N.
Miller, Sheldon S.
Publication Title: 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) form the principal thiol redox couple in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); however, few studies have attempted to quantify GSH redox status in this organelle. To address this gap, GSH and GSSG levels and the extent of protein glutathionylation were analyzed in rat liver microsomes. Because of the likelihood of artifactual GSH oxidation during the lengthy microsomal isolation procedure, iodoacetic acid (IAA) was used to preserve the physiological thiol redox state.

Author(s): 
Dixon, Brian M.
Heath, Shi-Hua D.
Kim, Robert
Suh, Jung H.
Hagen, Tory M.
Publication Title: 
Pediatric Research

Prematurely born infants are often treated with supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen, which is associated with lung injury and the development of diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Complimentary responses between the lung and liver during the course of hyperoxic lung injury have been studied in adult animals, but little is known about this relationship in neonates. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxidant stress occurs in the livers of newborn mice in response to continuous hyperoxia exposure.

Author(s): 
Rogers, Lynette K.
Tipple, Trent E.
Britt, Rodney D.
Welty, Stephen E.
Publication Title: 
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)

We present two different methods for determining levels of glutathione in complex biological samples and plasma. The DTNB/GR enzyme recycling method is sensitive and requires no specialized equipment. The HPLC method is particularly useful for situations in which sample amounts are limited. Detailed instructions for performing each method as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed in this chapter.

Author(s): 
Tipple, Trent E.
Rogers, Lynette K.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

The ripe fruit of Terminalia chebula RETZIUS (T. chebula RETZ) (Combretsceae), which is a native plant in India and Southeast Asia, has traditionally been used as a popular folk medicine for homeostatic, antitussive, laxative, diuretic, and cardiotonic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of an aqueous extract of fruit of T. chebula on the tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury observed in cultured rat primary hepatocytes and rat liver. Both treatment and pretreatment of the hepatocytes with the T.

Author(s): 
Lee, Hyun-Sun
Won, Nam Hee
Kim, Kyoung Heon
Lee, Hojoung
Jun, Woojin
Lee, Kwang-Won
Publication Title: 
Free Radical Biology & Medicine

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the aging process in the mouse is associated with a pro-oxidizing shift in the redox state of glutathione and whether restriction of caloric intake, which results in the extension of life span, retards such a shift.

Author(s): 
Rebrin, Igor
Kamzalov, Sergey
Sohal, Rajindar S.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Metabolic rate and parameters associated with oxidative stress were compared in two strains of mice, one of which, C57BL/6, exhibits an extension of life span in response to caloric restriction while the other, DBA/2, shows no such effect. Metabolic rate was higher in the DBA/2 than in the C57BL/6 mice, when measured at 5-6 months of age as in vivo and in vitro rates of oxygen consumption or body temperature.

Author(s): 
Ferguson, Melissa
Rebrin, Igor
Forster, Michael J.
Sohal, Rajindar S.
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