We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Terminalia chebula fruit extracts were prepared sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol-water (70:30) and tested for their ?-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant potential. The study resulted in the formulation of an extract with high ?-glucosidase inhibitory potential (IC(50) 0.19 ± 0.03 µg mL(-1)) enriched with hydrolysable tannins.
As in the case of aging, many degenerative disorders also result from progressive mitochondrial deterioration and cellular damage accumulation. Therefore, preventing damage accumulation may delay aging and help to prevent degenerative disorders, especially those associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans a mild mitochondrial dysfunction prolongs the lifespan.
Centenarians are people who escaped from major common diseases, including cancer, and reached the extreme limits of human life-span. The analysis of demographic data indicates that cancer incidence and mortality show a levelling off around the age of 85-90 years, and suggests that oldest old people and centenarians are protected from cancer onset and progression.
The pathways that regulate energy homeostasis, the mechanisms of damage repair, and the signaling response to internal environmental changes or external signals have been shown to be critical in modulating lifespan of model organisms and humans. In order to investigate whether genetic variation of genes involved in these pathways contribute to longevity, a two-stage case-control study in two independent sets of long-lived individuals from Calabria (Italy) was performed. In stage 1, 317 SNPs in 104 genes were analyzed in 78 cases (median age 98 years) and 71 controls (median age 67 years).
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity has been detected in rodent (Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii), simian (P. knowlesi) and human (P. falciparum) malarial parasites, and in different intraerythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi (schizont > ring > trophozoite). In chloroquine-resistant strains of rodent and human malarial parasites GST activity significantly increases compared to sensitive strains. Further, the increase in enzyme activity is directly related to drug pressure of resistant P. berghei. Complete inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P.
The anti-malarial artesunate (ART) also inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The active moiety is an endoperoxide bridge whose cleavage generates reactive oxygen species and free radicals. We analyzed whether glutathione-related enzymes contribute to tumor resistance to ART and to the low toxicity of ART towards normal organs.
Protein Science: A Publication of the Protein Society
Glutathione S-transferase of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfGST) represents a novel class of GST isoenzymes. Since the architecture of the PfGST substrate binding site differs significantly from its human counterparts and there is only this one isoenzyme present in the parasite, PfGST is considered a highly attractive target for antimalarial drug development. Here we report the mechanistic, kinetic, and structural characterization of PfGST as well as its interaction with different ligands.
BACKGROUND: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4.
Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively.