Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-related constipation is a common and serious adverse effect, especially for people taking clozapine. Clozapine has been shown to impede gastrointestinal motility, leading to constipation, and has been reported in up to 60% of patients receiving clozapine. In rare cases, complications can be fatal. Appropriate laxatives should be prescribed to treat constipation in people taking antipsychotics, but there is a lack of guidance on the comparative effectiveness and harms of different agents in this population.

Every-Palmer, Susanna
Newton-Howes, Giles
Clarke, Mike J.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

One of the most robust observations in the biology of aging is that caloric restriction (CR) extends life in a variety of species. Although CR results in a severalfold decrease in fat mass (FM), the role of fat on life extension was considered to be minimal. Two main reasons accounted for this belief. First, although increased FM is associated with changes in substrate oxidation and in glucose homeostasis, in part through the effects of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol, several studies have suggested that longevity is determined independent of FM.

Barzilai, N.
Gupta, G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHOPARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salacia reticulata, a herbal medicine which has been used for the treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine, is reported to have an anti-obesity effect and to be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata with special attention to the adipocytes as the tissue primarily involved in the pathology of metabolic diseases.

Shimada, Tsutomu
Nagai, Eiichi
Harasawa, Yukiko
Watanabe, Michiru
Negishi, Kenichi
Akase, Tomoko
Sai, Yoshimichi
Miyamoto, Ken-ichi
Aburada, Masaki
Publication Title: 
Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

Prolotherapy is an alternative injection-based therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Three different proliferants, D-glucose (dextrose), phenol-glucose-glycerine (P2G), and sodium morrhuate, used in prolotherapy are hypothesized to strengthen and reorganize chronically injured soft tissue and decrease pain through modulation of the inflammatory process. Our hypothesis is that commonly used prolotherapy solutions will induce inflammation (leukocyte and macrophage infiltration) in medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) compared to needlestick, saline injection, and no-injection controls.

Jensen, Kristina T.
Rabago, David P.
Best, Thomas M.
Patterson, Jeffrey J.
Vanderby, Ray
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is a popular model in experimental stroke research and causes prominent ischemic damage in the forebrain. To characterize metabolic changes induced by MCAO, we have induced permanent MCAO in mice that were implanted with a microdialysis probe in either striatum or hippocampus. Immediately after the onset of ischemia, glucose levels dropped to <10% of basal values in the striatum while they dropped to 50%, and recovered thereafter, in hippocampus.

Kiewert, Cornelia
Mdzinarishvili, Alexander
Hartmann, Joachim
Bickel, Ulrich
Klein, Jochen
Publication Title: 
Microbial Cell Factories

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus reuteri harbors the genes responsible for glycerol utilization and vitamin B12 synthesis within a genetic island phylogenetically related to gamma-Proteobacteria. Within this island, resides a gene (lreu_1750) that based on its genomic context has been suggested to encode the regulatory protein PocR and presumably control the expression of the neighboring loci. However, this functional assignment is not fully supported by sequence homology, and hitherto, completely lacks experimental confirmation.

Santos, Filipe
Spinler, Jennifer K.
Saulnier, Delphine M. A.
Molenaar, Douwe
Teusink, Bas
de Vos, Willem M.
Versalovic, James
Hugenholtz, Jeroen
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Ophthalmology

We describe the results of early hyperbaric oxygenation combined with nifedipine treatment for central retinal artery occlusion, and explain the results pathophysiologically. We report four cases in which hyperbaric oxygenation therapy was applied in combination with nifedipine, eyeball massage, and glycerol for the treatment of central retinal artery occlusion.

Beiran, I.
Reissman, P.
Scharf, J.
Nahum, Z.
Miller, B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is used in folk medicine for diuresis and detoxification. However, it has not yet been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. We found that the water extract of H. cordata leaves (WEH) inhibited the corn oil-induced increase in plasma triglyceride levels in mice. WEH also inhibited the oleic acid- and glycerol-induced increase in the levels of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and glycerol, respectively. Moreover, WEH had anti-obesity effects in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

Miyata, Mitsuyoshi
Koyama, Tomoyuki
Yazawa, Kazunaga
Publication Title: 
Marine Drugs

Scandinavian folk medicine used shark liver oil for the treatment of cancers and other ailments based on the rarity of tumors in sharks and their ability to resist infections. Shark liver oil is a source of alkylglycerols which have been studied as anti-cancer agents in several clinical trials. Moreover, alkylglycerols have been investigated for the treatment of radiation induced side effects and for their ability to boost the immune system.

Iannitti, Tommaso
Palmieri, Beniamino
Publication Title: 
Lipids in Health and Disease

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the dietary supplement Meltdown increases plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and metabolic rate in men. However, in that investigation measurements ceased at 90 minutes post ingestion, with values for blood borne variables peaking at this time. It was the purpose of the present investigation to extend the time course of measurement to 6 hours, and to include women within the design to determine if sex differences to treatment exist.

Bloomer, Richard J.
Canale, Robert E.
Blankenship, Megan M.
Hammond, Kelley G.
Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.
Schilling, Brian K.


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