Iron is estimated to be deficient in the diets of one fifth of the world's population. Iron is commonly provided as a supplemental nutrient in industrialized countries for uses of choice. In other countries of the world, it may be required as an overt addition to the diet to prevent iron deficiency. This may be accomplished through fortification of a common food. As a micronutrient, iron has a relatively narrow range of safety--whether given as a supplement or fortificant, it must be in a high enough dose to be appreciably absorbed, but low enough to avoid toxicity.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Two siblings with the R269G mutation in the presenilin-1 gene causing early-onset Alzheimer's disease are presented, only the second family with this mutation to be reported. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms were prominent in both cases, as well as cognitive decline. Other reports of presenilin-1 gene mutations associated with behavioural and psychiatric symptoms are reviewed.
Ethyl 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-4-imidazolecarboxylate (TG41) enhanced the binding both of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and of flunitrazepam to rat cerebral cortical membranes. Electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus oocytes expressing various recombinant GABA(A) receptor subtypes revealed that TG41 enhanced the function of all receptor subunit combinations tested. The potency of TG41 at receptors containing alpha1, beta2, and gamma2L subunits was greater than that of alphaxalone, etomidate, propofol, or pentobarbital.
Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels.
Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyR) play a major role in the excitability of CNS neurons and are also a major target of many drugs including some general anesthetics and ethanol. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is an important substrate responsible for cognitive function and for sedation, as well as hypnosis (unconsciousness) which is induced by general anesthetics and ethanol. However, the functions and the physiological and pharmacological properties of GlyRs in mature PFC neurons have not been well studied.
The physiological and pharmacological properties of taurine-induced responses were investigated in dopaminergic (DA) neurones from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of young rats aged 1-13 postnatal days, either in acute brain slices or acutely dissociated neurones. When whole-cell responses were recorded from current-clamped neurones using the gramicidin-perforated technique, the application of taurine (0.01-30 mm) accelerated firings and induced membrane depolarization.
Women have greater temporal summation of experimental pain stimuli and also have a higher propensity for developing chronic visceral pain conditions. Sex hormone-mediated regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) in nociceptive pathways is a plausible mechanism that may underlie these phenomena. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) in modulation of NMDAR activity in adult male and female rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons were collected from adult male or female rats and grown in short-term culture in steroid-free media.
Recent studies suggest that GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature cortical neurons during prolonged hypoxia. Since the action of these inhibitory amino acids is mediated by GABA and glycine receptors, the expression of these receptors is a critical factor in determining neuronal response to GABA(A) and glycine in hypoxia.
Rats were fed diets with and without 0.5% L-cysteine supplement for 14 d or shorter periods to clarify the mechanism by which dietary cysteine elicits its hypohomocysteinemic effect. Cysteine supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocysteine concentration with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed 10% casein diet (10C) or 15% soybean protein diet (15S) but not in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C) or 25% soybean protein diet.
Studies with L-arginine supplementation have shown inconsistent effects on endothelial function. The generation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) from L-arginine with subsequent formation of creatine and homocysteine and consumption of methionine may reduce the pool of L-arginine available for nitric oxide generation. Experimental studies suggest that creatine supplementation might block this pathway. We sought to determine the effects of L-arginine, creatine, or the combination on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and homocysteine metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease.