Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Accumulation of tau is a critical event in several neurodegenerative disorders, collectively known as tauopathies, which include Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Pathological tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregates to form neurofibrillary tangles. The molecular mechanisms leading to tau accumulation remain unclear and more needs to be done to elucidate them. Age is a major risk factor for all tauopathies, suggesting that molecular changes contributing to the aging process may facilitate tau accumulation and represent common mechanisms across different tauopathies.

Author(s): 
Caccamo, Antonella
MagrÏ, Andrea
Medina, David X.
Wisely, Elena V.
LÛpez-Aranda, Manuel F.
Silva, Alcino J.
Oddo, Salvatore
Publication Title: 
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy = BiomÈdecine & PharmacothÈrapie

Oxidative stress is a principal pathway for the dysfunction and ultimate destruction of cells in the neuronal and vascular systems for several disease entities, not promoting the ravages of oxidative stress to any less of a degree than diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is increasing in incidence as a result of changes in human behavior that relate to diet and daily exercise and is predicted to affect almost 400 million individuals worldwide in another two decades.

Author(s): 
Maiese, Kenneth
Publication Title: 
European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

We aimed to get a comprehensive insight into the genetic evidence supporting the role of GSK3beta in bipolar disorder (BD). Using broad searches in NCBI's PubMed and the Genetic Association Database we looked for association, whole-genome linkage, genome-wide association, gene expression, pharmocogenomic, epigenetic, cytogenetic, and mouse model studies performed for BD until July 2009. Per gene, we rated the degree of converging evidence across these types of genetic studies.

Author(s): 
Luykx, J. J.
Boks, M. P. M.
Terwindt, A. P. R.
Bakker, S.
Kahn, R. S.
Ophoff, R. A.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls.

Author(s): 
Numata, Shusuke
Ishii, Kazuo
Tajima, Atsushi
Iga, Jun-ichi
Kinoshita, Makoto
Watanabe, Shinya
Umehara, Hidehiro
Fuchikami, Manabu
Okada, Satoshi
Boku, Shuken
Hishimoto, Akitoyo
Shimodera, Shinji
Imoto, Issei
Morinobu, Shigeru
Ohmori, Tetsuro
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent obstruction of the upper airway, which leads to intermittent hypoxia. Myocardial glycogen is a major energy resource for heart during hypoxia. Previous studies have demonstrated that intermittent hypoxia rapidly degrades myocardial glycogen and activates glycogen synthase (GS). However, the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Because sleep apnea/intermittent hypoxia usually happens at night, whether intermittent hypoxia leads to GS activation in the postabsorptive state is not known.

Author(s): 
Wu, Yangsong
Wang, Hong
Brautigan, David L.
Liu, Zhenqi
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Activation of NFkappaB is a fundamental cellular event central to all inflammatory diseases. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ameliorates both acute and chronic inflammation in a multitude of organ systems through modulating NFkappaB activity; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Here we report that HGF through inactivation of GSK3beta suppresses NFkappaB p65 phosphorylation specifically at position Ser-468.

Author(s): 
Gong, Rujun
Rifai, Abdalla
Ge, Yan
Chen, Shan
Dworkin, Lance D.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

The extract of plant Shilianhua (SLH; Sinocrassula indica Berge) is a component in a commercial product for control of blood glucose. However, it remains to be investigated whether the SLH extract enhances insulin sensitivity in a model of type 2 diabetes. To address this question, the SLH crude extract was fractionated into four parts on the basis of polarity, and bioactivities of each part were tested in cells. One of the fractions, F100, exhibited a strong activity in the stimulation of glucose consumption in vitro.

Author(s): 
Yin, Jun
Zuberi, Aamir
Gao, Zhanguo
Liu, Dong
Liu, Zhijun
Ye, Jianping
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Signals generated by the dynamic mechanical strain critically regulate endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis; however, the molecular basis remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms by which human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) perceive mechanical signals and relay them intracellularly to regulate gene expression and endothelial cell proliferation. HDMECs were exposed to low/physiologic levels of dynamic strain and probed for the differential activation/inhibition of kinases in the mechanosignaling cascade associated with endothelial cell gene activation.

Author(s): 
Liu, Jie
Agarwal, Sudha
Publication Title: 
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry: International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in development and cellular processes. The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling activation is the stabilization of β-catenin protein in cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The stability of β-catenin is the key to its biological functions and is controlled by the phosphorylation of its amino-terminal degradation domain. Aberrant activation of β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the development of human cancers. It has been recently suggested that GSK3βmay play an essential role in regulating global protein turnover.

Author(s): 
Kong, Yuhan
Zhang, Hongyu
Chen, Xian
Zhang, Wenwen
Zhao, Chen
Wang, Ning
Wu, Ningning
He, Yunfeng
Nan, Guoxin
Zhang, Hongmei
Wen, Sheng
Deng, Fang
Liao, Zhan
Wu, Di
Zhang, Junhui
Qin, Xinyue
Haydon, Rex C.
Luu, Hue H.
He, Tong-Chuan
Zhou, Lan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb is a plant employed in tropical America folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including depressive disorders.

Author(s): 
Freitas, Andiara E.
Machado, Daniele G.
Budni, Josiane
Neis, Vivian B.
Balen, Grasiela O.
Lopes, Mark W.
de Souza, Luiz F.
Veronezi, Patricia O.
Heller, Melina
Micke, Gustavo A.
Pizzolatti, Moacir G.
Dafre, Alcir L.
Leal, Rodrigo B.
Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.

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