The study details the investigations on the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum CFR 2194, an isolate from kanjika, a rice-based ayurvedic fermented product, to produce biosurfactant. Surfactant production, as a function of fermentation time, indicates that the maximum production occurred at 72 h under stationary conditions.
Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Hepatic MAT activity falls in chronic liver diseases, and mice lacking Mat1a are predisposed to liver injury and develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneously by 18 months. The current work examined the hypothesis that liver cancer stem cells contribute to HCC in this model. Livers from 6- and 18-month-old Mat1a-knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fractionated and isolated by flow cytometry.
Glycosylation of proteins plays multiple roles in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Fucose is a monosaccharide associated with glycosylation events and is known to be over-expressed in many malignant tumors. By using alpha-L-fucosidase (alpha-L-fase), a glycosidase that specifically removes alpha-L-fucose (alpha-L-f), we have examined the potential effects of defucosylation on tumor functions, focusing on tumor progression in the context of the interaction of tumor cells with the extracellular microenvironment.
Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme required for S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis. Hepatic MAT activity falls during chronic liver injury, and mice lacking Mat1a develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma by 18 months. We have previously demonstrated that CD133(+)CD45(-) oval cells isolated from 16-month-old Mat1a(-/-) mice represent a liver cancer stem cell population. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway constitutes a central signaling network in proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis.
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
Gene promoter CpG island hypermethylation is associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and may be an important initiator of gastric carcinogenesis. To examine factors influencing methylation, we utilized bisulfite Pyrosequencing® technology for quantitative analysis of promoter DNA methylation in RPRM, APC, MGMT and TWIST1 genes using DNA from 86 gastric biopsies from Colombian residents of areas with high and low incidence of gastric cancer. H. pylori colonies were cultured from the same subjects, and gastric pathology was evaluated.
Clinical symptoms in MOG-induced EAE mice significantly exacerbated following chondroitin sulfate A (CS-A) injection, whereas administration of a degraded product, CSPG-DS, caused dramatic inhibition of EAE development. Also, administration of CSPG-DS but not CS-A, after the onset of clinical symptoms of EAE, was able to suppress the disease. Further studies demonstrated that CS-A up-regulated STAT4 expression and thus, induced IFN-gamma production and Th1 CD4 T cell differentiation. CS-A also up-regulated STAT3 and IL-23 expression and thus increased IL-17 producing T cells.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is predicted to play a critical role in metastatic disease in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we used a novel murine model of EMT to elucidate a mechanism of tumor progression and metastasis. A total of 2 x 10(6) liver cells isolated from Pten(loxp/loxp)/Alb-Cre(+) mice, expanded from a single CD133(+)CD45(-) cell clone, passage 0 (P0), were sequentially transplanted to obtain two passages of tumor cells, P1 and P2. Cells were analyzed for gene expression using microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Excessive production of Aβ (amyloid β-peptide) has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD (Alzheimer's disease). Although not yet well understood, aggregation of Aβ is known to cause toxicity to neurons. Our recent study demonstrated the ability for oligomeric Aβ to stimulate the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in neurons through an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate)-dependent pathway. However, whether prolonged exposure of neurons to aggregated Aβ is associated with impairment of NMDA receptor function has not been extensively investigated.
Breastfeeding is one of the main factors guiding the composition of the infant gut microbiota in the first months of life. This process is shaped in part by the high amounts of human milk oligosaccharides that serve as a carbon source for saccharolytic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium species. Infant-borne bifidobacteria have developed various molecular strategies for utilizing these oligosaccharides as a carbon source. We hypothesized that these species also interact with N-glycans found in host glycoproteins that are structurally similar to free oligosaccharides in human milk.
Two novel cucurbitacins designated as neocucurbitacins A (1), possessing inhibitory activity of polyoma enhancer binding protein 2alphaA (PEBP2alphaA) and osteoclastogenesis-inhibitory factor (OCIF) gene expression in human osteoblast-like cells, and B (2) were isolated from the fruit of Luffa operculata. Their structures have been determined by extensive spectroscopic investigation.