Glycosaminoglycans

Publication Title: 
Aktuelle Urologie

The so-called interstitial cystitis is a chronic pain syndrome rather than a purely end organ disease of the urinary bladder. New suggestions for definitions and nomenclature take this into consideration. Since aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown a treatment of the cause is still not possible. There are neither evidence-based treatment algorithms nor a so-called standard therapy. Numerous therapeutic approaches have been tried up to now. These attempts can be divided into oral, intravesical, surgical and physical procedures.

Author(s): 
Binder, I.
Rossbach, G.
van Ophoven, A.
Publication Title: 
Aktuelle Urologie

The so-called interstitial cystitis is a chronic pain syndrome rather than a purely end organ disease of the urinary bladder. New suggestions for definitions and nomenclature take this into consideration. Since aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown a treatment of the cause is still not possible. There are neither evidence-based treatment algorithms nor a so-called standard therapy. Numerous therapeutic approaches have been tried up to now. These attempts can be divided into oral, intravesical, surgical and physical procedures.

Author(s): 
Binder, I.
Rossbach, G.
van Ophoven, A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Virology

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytotoxic doses in A549 human lung cells.

Author(s): 
Lin, Liang-Tzung
Chen, Ting-Ying
Chung, Chueh-Yao
Noyce, Ryan S.
Grindley, T. Bruce
McCormick, Craig
Lin, Ta-Chen
Wang, Guey-Horng
Lin, Chun-Ching
Richardson, Christopher D.
Publication Title: 
Chemistry & Biology

BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis is characterized by a decreased concentration and reduced size of glycosaminoglycans. Degeneration of the cartilage matrix is a multifactorial process, which is due in part to accelerated glycosaminoglycan catabolism. Recently, we have demonstrated that hexosaminidase represents the dominant glycosaminoglycan-degrading glycosidase released by chondrocytes into the extracellular compartment and is the dominant glycosidase in synovial fluid from patients with osteoarthritis.

Author(s): 
Liu, J.
Shikhman, A. R.
Lotz, M. K.
Wong, C. H.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Rheumatology

Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM(R)) is a new novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy articular cartilage and the surrounding synovium. The randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled Osteoarthritis Pain Treatment Incorporating NEM(R) clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM(R) as a treatment for pain and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.

Author(s): 
Ruff, Kevin J.
Winkler, Anne
Jackson, Robert W.
DeVore, Dale P.
Ritz, Barry W.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The effects of lysine-, methionine- or histidine-deficient diets compared to a control diet fed ad libitum or 15, 10 or 5 g/d were studied in weanling rats. Feed intake was 5-7 g/d for the amino acid-deficient animals. After 3 wk, all amino acid-deficient rats had lost more weight (P less than 0.01) than the controls fed at comparable energy levels. Serum somatomedin (Sm) activity was significantly decreased in lysine- (0.55 U/ml), methionine- (0.32 U/ml) and histidine-deficient (0.38 U/ml) rats compared to rats fed the control diet ad libitum (1.6 U/ml).

Author(s): 
Bolze, M. S.
Reeves, R. D.
Lindbeck, F. E.
Elders, M. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rationale behind the most commonly used treatments of osteoarthritis, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and to assess more effective conservative treatment options. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This review includes a description of the pathophysiology and prevalence of osteoarthritis, joint physiology and NSAID treatment of osteoarthritis, as well as side effects on joints, the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and livers.

Author(s): 
Gottlieb, M. S.
Publication Title: 
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Cartilage loss in osteoarthritis is characterized by cartilage degradation and chondrocyte death. Cartilage degradation is induced by activation of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and degradation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen. Also, chondrocyte death is induced by the apoptosis through the activation of MAP kinase and caspases activities. On the basis of this background, our study was designed to examine the cartilage protective and anti-apoptotic effect of Aralia cordata.

Author(s): 
Baek, Yong-Hyeon
Huh, Jeong-Eun
Lee, Jae-Dong
Choi, Do-Young
Park, Dong-Suk
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