Gonads

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known.

Author(s): 
Ren, Yaguang
Yang, Su
Tan, Guoqiang
Ye, Wei
Liu, Danhui
Qian, Xu
Ding, Zhongying
Zhong, Yuhong
Zhang, Jingrui
Jiang, Dandan
Zhao, Yuhong
Lu, Jianxin
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Pioneering work in model organisms reveals that the reproductive system is involved not only in propagation of the species but also regulates organismal metabolism and longevity. In C. elegans, prevention of germline stem cell proliferation results in a 60% extension of lifespan, termed gonadal longevity. Gonadal longevity relies on the transcriptional activities of steroid nuclear receptor DAF-12, the FOXO transcription factor homolog DAF-16, the FOXA transcription factor homolog PHA-4, and the HNF-4-like nuclear receptor NHR-80.

Author(s): 
Antebi, Adam
Publication Title: 
Aging

The C. elegans germline and somatic gonad are actively developing until the animal reaches adulthood, and then continue to undergo striking changes as the animal ages. Reported changes include a depletion of available sperm, a decrease in oocyte quality up till mid-life, a reduction in germline nuclei, a decrease in fertility, and an accumulation of DNA in the midbody of aging C. elegans. Here, we have focused on the aging gonad in old animals, and show in detail that the aging gonad undergoes a massive uterine growth composed of endoreduplicating oocytes, yolk, and expanses of chromatin.

Author(s): 
McGee, Mathew D.
Day, Nicholas
Graham, Jill
Melov, Simon
Publication Title: 
Developmental Cell

Developmental timing genes catalyze stem cell progression and animal maturation programs across taxa. Caenorhabditis elegans DRE-1/FBXO11 functions in an SCF E3-ubiquitin ligase complex to regulate the transition to adult programs, but its cognate proteolytic substrates are unknown. Here, we identify the conserved transcription factor BLMP-1 as a substrate of the SCF(DRE-1/FBXO11) complex. blmp-1 deletion suppressed dre-1 mutant phenotypes and exhibited developmental timing defects opposite to dre-1.

Author(s): 
Horn, Moritz
Geisen, Christoph
Cermak, Lukas
Becker, Ben
Nakamura, Shuhei
Klein, Corinna
Pagano, Michele
Antebi, Adam
Publication Title: 
Epigenomics

Sexual differentiation of the brain takes place during a perinatal-sensitive time window as a result of gonadal hormone-induced activational and organizational effects on neuronal substrates. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to the establishment and maintenance of some aspects of these processes, and that these epigenetic mechanisms may themselves be under the control of sex hormones.

Author(s): 
Menger, Yannick
Bettscheider, Marc
Murgatroyd, Chris
Spengler, Dietmar
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuroendocrinology

XX and XY cells have a different number of X and Y genes. These differences in their genomes cause sex differences in the functions of cells, both in the gonads and in non-gonadal tissues. This review discusses mouse models that have shed light on these direct genetic effects of sex chromosomes that cause sex differences in physiology. Because many sex differences in tissues are caused by different effects of male and female gonadal hormones, it is important to attempt to discriminate between direct genetic and hormonal effects.

Author(s): 
Arnold, Arthur P.
Publication Title: 
JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of proinflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes.

Author(s): 
Huang, Edmond Y.
Leone, Vanessa A.
Devkota, Suzanne
Wang, Yunwei
Brady, Matthew J.
Chang, Eugene B.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the homeopathic complex Homeopatila RS (REAL Homeopathy, Brazil), in the performance, sexual proportion and gills and liver histology of the Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus L.). 4,800 post-larvae were treated for 45 days, in 12 tanks (500 L), in a closed environment, with density of 400 larvae per tank. Three treatments were given: alcohol 30%, negative control (C); hormonal, positive control, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (H); homeopathic, Homeopatila RS, in ethanol (HH), with four replications.

Author(s): 
Valentim-Zabott, M.
Vargas, L.
Ribeiro, R. P. R.
Piau, R.
Torres, M. B. A.
Rönnau, M.
Souza, J. C.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats.

Author(s): 
Martin, Bronwen
Pearson, Michele
Brenneman, Randall
Golden, Erin
Wood, William
Prabhu, Vinayakumar
Becker, Kevin G.
Mattson, Mark P.
Maudsley, Stuart
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood.

Author(s): 
Kumar, Sushil
Kaur, Gurcharan

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