Table 1 summarizes the activities of hemopoietins on immature and mature basophils. IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 enhanced basophil histamine release and in-vitro survival, while G-CSF, M-CSF, and IL-4 had no enhancing activities at all. In addition, IL-3 and GM-CSF induced basophil chemotaxis.
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key cytokine for the generation and stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), and it may also play a pivotal role in promoting the survival of DCs. In this study, the feasibility of creating a cancer vaccine using DCs adenovirally transduced with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene and the GM-CSF gene was examined. In addition, the effect of the co-transduction of GM-CSF gene on the lifespan of these genetically modified DCs was determined.
CD34+ precursors in normal human bone marrow (BM) generate large numbers of dendritic cells alongside macrophages and granulocytic precursors when cultured for 12 to 14 days in c-kit ligand, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). This study reports an intermediate cell type that develops by day 6, and has the potential to differentiate into either macrophages or dendritic cells.
Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro.
γδ T cells have been postulated to act as a first line of defense against infectious agents, particularly intracellular pathogens, representing an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Human γδ T cells expand in the blood of brucellosis patients and are active against Brucella in vitro. However, the role of γδ T cells in vivo during experimental brucellosis has not been studied. Here we report TCRδ(-/-) mice are more susceptible to B. abortus infection than C57BL/6 mice at one week post-infection as measured by splenic colonization and splenomegaly.
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid Ags presented by the MHC class I-related protein CD1d. Activation of iNKT cells with glycolipid Ags, such as the marine sponge-derived reagent α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), results in the rapid production of a variety of cytokines and activation of many other immune cell types.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects and security of YiSuiShengXueGranule (YSSXG) on treating 156 patients with beta-thalassemia major. METHODS: YSSXG was given orally to 156 patients with beta-thalassemia in GuangXi Autonomous Region (the high incidence area of beta-thalassemia in China) for 3 months as one therapeutic course, 3 times a day, 10 g each time (for children, the dose should be reduced properly according to their body weight and age), and no blood transfusion used during the course.
OBJECT: The aim in this study was to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) leads to sensory improvement in rat spinal cord injury (SCI) models. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in this study: 10 in the sham group (laminectomy alone without SCI), 10 in the SCI group (SCI treated with phosphate-buffered saline), and 10 in the GM-CSF treatment group (SCI treated with GM-CSF). A locomotor function test and pain sensitivity test were conducted weekly for 9 weeks after SCI or sham injury.