OBJECTIVE: Chebulagic acid (CHE) from the immature seeds of Terminalia chebula was identified from a natural product library as a potent suppressor of T cell activity. This study examined the effectiveness of CHE against the onset and progression of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in DBA/1J mice by subcutaneous immunization with bovine type II collagen on days 0 and 21. CHE was administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks, either as prophylaxis (10 or 20 mg/kg) before disease onset or as therapy (20 mg/kg) after disease onset.
Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils.
The inflammatory response was studied in patients with primary polycythaemia by means of a modified skin window technique. In untreated patients, the overall cellularity was a prominent feature and, as compared with the controls, the 48 h preparations showed a significantly greater percentage of granulocytes with a corresponding decreased percentage of macrophages. In the peripheral blood of these patients, both total white cells and granulocyte counts were significantly higher than in the control subjects.
DNA methylation, which is the transference of a methyl group to the 5'-carbon position of the cytosine in a CpG dinucleotide, is one of the major mechanisms of epigenetic modifications. A number of studies have demonstrated altered DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells in schizophrenia (SCZ) in previous studies.
Our aim was to study the possible relationship between psychological stress and granulocyte activation primarily in healthy students during an examination period (n = 11) and also in chronically anxious patients (n = 15).
The effect of dihydroartemisinin, artemisinin and artesunate (0.1, 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L) on phagocytic function and release of reactive oxygen products by neutrophils was studied by flow cytometry. Incubation with dihydroartemisinin, artemisinin and artemether resulted in a decreased capacity to phagocytose Escherichia coli (0.1-50 mg/L: 62-40%, 66-32% and 59-47% of the control values, respectively; P < 0.001 for all).
Two drugs composed of several different plant extracts are in use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of asthma and arthritis, respectively. There is increasing evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from several enzymatic reactions are mediators of inflammatory events such as the above mentioned. Plant extracts have the potential for scavenging such reactive oxygen species, dependent on the individual test system.
BACKGROUND: The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone levels. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. However, it is not known whether GSTM1 modulates these ozone responses in vivo in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the GSTM1 null genotype modulates ozone responses in human subjects.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the GSTM1 null genotype is a risk factor for increased inflammatory response to inhaled endotoxin. METHODS: 35 volunteers who had undergone inhalation challenge with a 20 000 endotoxin unit dose of Clinical Center Reference Endotoxin (CCRE) were genotyped for the GSTM1 null polymorphism. Parameters of airway and systemic inflammation observed before and after challenge were compared in GSTM1 null (n=17) and GSTM1 (n=18) sufficient volunteers.
Echinacea species are used for beneficial effects on immune function, and various prevalent phytochemicals have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea (L.) Moench product, we have evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical class composition. Granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) from femurs of female Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed at 24 h after 7 daily oral treatments.