Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
OBJECTIVE: Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk.
OBJECTIVE: Fear of pain and pain catastrophizing are prominent risk factors for pediatric chronic pain-related maladjustment. Although resilience has largely been ignored in the pediatric pain literature, prior research suggests that optimism might benefit youth and can be learned. We applied an adult chronic pain risk-resilience model to examine the interplay of risk factors and optimism on functioning outcomes in youth with chronic pain. METHOD: Participants included 58 children and adolescents (8-17 years) attending a chronic pain clinic and their parents.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the potential effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on combating depressive and anxious symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China.
PURPOSE: This study examined the short-term effects of risky driving motor vehicle television commercials on risk-positive attitudes, emotions and risky driving inclinations in video-simulated critical road traffic situations among males and females, within an experimental design. METHOD: Participants were randomly assigned to one of three televised commercial advertising conditions embedded in a television show: a risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition, a non-risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition and a control non-motor vehicle commercial condition.
Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation
PURPOSE: Comorbidity has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to investigate whether the impact of comorbidity on QoL is lower in older home care clients with positive attitudes toward aging. METHODS: Totally, 361 older adults aged 50-91 years who were clients of 14 home care agencies in two regions in the Czech Republic gave an in-person interview to research nurses and completed the WHOQOL-BREF, the WHOQOL-OLD, and the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire. The Charlson comorbidity index was calculated using ICD-10 codes.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
BACKGROUND: Information avoidance is a defensive strategy that undermines receipt of potentially beneficial but threatening health information and may especially occur when threat management resources are unavailable. PURPOSE: We examined whether individual differences in information avoidance predicted intentions to receive genetic sequencing results for preventable and unpreventable (i.e., more threatening) disease and, secondarily, whether threat management resources of self-affirmation or optimism mitigated any effects.
The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that parent's positive strengths predicted better personal relationship satisfaction.
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read "High Daily Resilience".] This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work-task and relationship conflict-spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis.
Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on farms warranting health and safety attention. As part of a larger study, we carried out a face-to-face survey with 216 farmers in New Zealand. We quantitatively identified farmers' propensity for risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism as risk factors in quad-bike loss-of-control events (LCEs). The purpose of the analysis presented in this article was to use these same farmers' recollections of LCEs to explore the a priori constructs in more detail using qualitative methods.
The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent optimism. Optimism (3 items and 6 items approach) and pessimism were assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) in 5,187 adolescent twins and 999 of their non-twin siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Males reported significantly higher optimism scores than females, while females score higher on pessimism.