BACKGROUND: Several pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapeutic options have been used to treat cough that is not associated with a pulmonary or extrapulmonary etiology. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence supporting different cough management options in adults and children with psychogenic, tic, and habit cough. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus were searched from the earliest inception of each database to September 2013.
BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients' values and preferences, and the clinical context.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
BACKGROUND: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH.
In the past decade, the growing field of telomere science has opened exciting new avenues for understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of stress and stress-related aging processes over the lifespan. Shorter telomere length is associated with advancing chronological age and also increased disease morbidity and mortality. Emerging studies suggest that stress accelerates the erosion of telomeres from very early in life and possibly even influences the initial (newborn) setting of telomere length.
BACKGROUND: Using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories of altruism, this article explores how multiple motivations and beliefs for blood donation are clustered and change across the donor career. In so doing important distinctions, for blood donation, between impure altruism, pure altruism, and warm glow are explored. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Measures of intentions, cognitive and affective attitudes, role merger, pure altruism, trust, self-efficacy, subjective and moral norms, and habit formation were assessed in a sample of 12,580 whole blood donors.
Retention of blood donors has benefits over recruitment of new blood donors. Retention is defined as preventing donors from lapsing and eventually becoming inactive. This review paper discusses literature on the importance of efforts to retain donors, specifically new donors, since lapsing is most common before the fifth donation. Studies have found that intention to donate, attitudes towards blood donation and self-efficacy (does one feel capable of donating blood) are predictors of blood donation. Feelings of 'warm glow' predict donation behaviour better than altruism.
Hypnotherapy may sometimes be helpful in treating childhood habit disorders, provided that it is used with the same caution as are other treatment modalities. This paper clarifies some common misconceptions about hypnosis with children, notes indications and contraindications, describes a patient in whom hypnotherapy was used to treat hair pulling, and offers information about training in hypnosis and locating qualified hypnotherapists.