BACKGROUND: Current pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including dopamine receptors. Ligand-bound GPCRs are regulated by a family of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), members of which uncouple the receptor from heterotrimeric G proteins, desensitize the receptor, and induce receptor internalization via the arrestin family of scaffolding and signaling molecules.
A 31-year-old male presented to a neuropsychiatric service for the first time with an erotomatic delusion among other symptoms. He had suffered significant brain damage several times in the past and experienced a recent loss. After extensive evaluation, a trial of haloperidol resulted in some improvement. However, the erotomanic delusion remained unchanged.
Neuralgiform pain and migrainous pain, both of which are amenable to drug therapy, comprise a relatively small percentage of the group of patients with facial pain who come to the practitioner's office. The largest group of facial pain patients are those with myofascial connective tissue disorders. A second group includes patients with neuropathic pain due to trauma such as oral surgery. A third group is made up of those without any identifiable focus of pain in the extracranial tissue.
Our experiments demonstrate that morphine and haloperidol produce two distinct and contrasting behavioral states, which can be thought of as exaggerated, isolated, and simplified forms of organized adaptive behavioral states functioning as components of normal motivated behavior. Haloperidol catalepsy constitutes an organized state in which tonic reactions subserving the maintenance of stable static equilibrium prevail, at the expense of phasic locomotor reactions.
Brahmi Rasayan, an Ayurvedic preparation, was studied in mice and rats for its effects on the central nervous system at oral doses ranging between 1 and 30 g/kg. Observational screening in mice was carried out following a multiparametric check list. The test material was studied for its effect on pentobarbitone hypnosis, motor co-ordination, tail-withdrawal reaction time, electroshock, chemoconvulsions, haloperidol-induced catalepsy and conditioned avoidance response. The test material exhibited a sedative effect and significantly prolonged the hypnotic action of pentobarbitone.
"Cinkara", a polyherbal preparation reduced pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in mice, decreased apomorphine induced fighting, aggression and stereotypy and increased amphetamine induced aggregated toxicity in mice. It also increased immobility of rats in forced swimming test, an action which was not blocked by chlor-promazine, and increased ambulation in open arena test. It did not modify electrically induced convulsions or haloperidol catalepsy.
The effects of 1-[2-[bis (4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3- phenylpropyl) piperazine dihydrochloride (I-893) on the central nervous system were behaviorally and electroencephalographically investigated. Intraperitoneally injected I-893 (5-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased spontaneous motor activity in mice, but repeated injections did not affect the increase in the locomotor activity. In reserpinized mice, spontaneous motor activity was not increased by oral I-893.
A pharmacodynamic interactional study with omeprazole was undertaken in rats. Omeprazole (7 mg/kg, orally once daily for 14 days) significantly prolonged pentobarbitone (30 mg/kg, ip) induced hypnosis while it had no effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, ip) induced catalepsy or morphine (5 mg/kg, ip) induced analgesia models in rats. The study highlighted the fact that dynamic interaction with omeprazole was selective.
Oxydemeton-methyl, an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide produced decrease in the exploratory behaviour and prolongation of barbitone sodium induced hypnosis in rats after intermittent aerosol spray inhalational exposure, for 1/2 hour daily for 7 consecutive days, compared to the saline control group. Further, ED50 +/- SEM value for haloperidol induced catalepsy, CD50 +/- SEM value for pentylenetetrazole induced seizure and CI50 +/- SEM value for electroshock (i.e.