A multicomponent herbal formula Ledretan-96 was tested on an epithelial tissue culture cell line (MDCK) for its protective activity against cytopathic effects caused by influenza A virus. The whole formula and each of its 23 individual components were tested in the same system. The results indicated that the formula, when prepared according to established procedure, in the form of decoction, is active in protecting epithelial cells against damage caused by influenza A virus used at different dosages.
The underlying mechanism of calorie restriction (CR) extension of mammalian life spans operates by altering the rate of decline in reserve capacity (with time) as well as the exposure to growth stimulus, two mechanisms that seem to be related to the central genetically determined mechanism that controls mammalian life span over a 50-fold range.
Dietary caloric restriction is the most robust and reproducible means of slowing aging and extending lifespan and healthspan in short-lived mammals and lower organisms. Numerous aspects of this paradigm have been investigated in laboratories around the world since its inception more than 60 years ago. However, two questions about calorie restriction remain unanswered to this day: (1) By what mechanism does it work? and (2) Will it work in humans?
Based on results emerging from long-term studies of dietary restriction in rhesus monkeys, we offer our views regarding whether dietary restriction can increase longevity in humans. Because lifespan data in monkeys remain inconclusive currently, we respond that "we do not for sure".
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of calorie restriction in humans is controversial. Recently, new data in monkeys and humans have provided new insights into the potential role of calorie restriction in longevity. RECENT FINDINGS: A study in rhesus monkeys showed a reduction in aging-associated mortality. A number of controlled studies have suggested a variety of beneficial effects during studies of 6-12 months in humans. Major negative effects in humans were loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and loss of bone.
When the food intake of organisms such as yeast and rodents is reduced (dietary restriction), they live longer than organisms fed a normal diet. A similar effect is seen when the activity of nutrient-sensing pathways is reduced by mutations or chemical inhibitors. In rodents, both dietary restriction and decreased nutrient-sensing pathway activity can lower the incidence of age-related loss of function and disease, including tumors and neurodegeneration.
When a couple become erotically pair-bonded, whether for a night or a lifetime, they are by definition committed to each other erotically. That is the minimum. The degree varies. The commitment may be limited to the proceptive phase of solicitation or courtship, or it may include the acceptive phase of coitus, or it may extend to the conceptive phase of parenthood. People "fall in love with their fantasy" and project onto the partner a range of future commitments.