Food use is changing very fast all over the world. This and other changes (e.g. reduced physical activity, increased longevity) result in novel health risks for the populations in European countries and beyond. Also, in recent decades the convenience food market has grown dramatically and offers novel opportunities for small and large industries alike. Simultaneously, there is a dramatic and irrevocable loss of the local knowledge which forms the basis of many cultural traditions (traditional food knowledge--TFK).
Forschende Komplementärmedizin Und Klassische Naturheilkunde = Research in Complementary and Natural Classical Medicine
BACKGROUND: Even 100 years after the birth of Alfred Vogel there is a lack of reliable data about his life as a non-doctoral therapist in the fields of naturopathy and phytotherapy. OBJECTIVE: Which documents about A. Vogel do exist, which facts do they prove about his career and which interpretations of his point of view of phytotherapy do they allow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With the methods in medical history (heuristic, critic, interpretation) video, audio and written documents from the A. Vogel Museum and A. Vogel publisher in Teufen, the A.
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Probiotics have been in widespread use since ancient times and are increasingly being consumed to maintain health and to prevent and treat a wide range of conditions. In the United States, probiotics are considered to be foods or biologics, depending on their intended use. This article addresses the similarities and differences between approaches to conducting clinical trials of probiotics as foods (which leads to health claims) or as biologics (which leads to therapeutic claims).
BACKGROUND: The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a measure of diet quality developed based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the diet quality of a multi-ethnic population using and comparing the 2 HEIs, the updated HEI (HEI-05) based on the 2005 DGA and the original 1990 HEI (HEI-90), with the objective of predicting obesity outcomes.
The use of anthelmintics is strongly limited in organic farming. This may induce a change in the intensity (no of worms) and diversity (proportions of species) of helminth infection. Helminths remain a major preoccupation in organic sheep farming: high levels of infection have been recorded on several farms and helminth diversity is always higher. The helminth infection in milk cattle of northern Europe is controlled and diversity is higher in organic farms, as recorded in sheep. The role of helminth diversity on intensity is still unclear.
This paper compares management of mastitis on organic dairy farms with that on conventional dairy farms. National standards for organic production vary by country. In the United States, usage of antimicrobials to treat dairy cattle results in permanent loss of organic status of the animal, effectively limiting treatment choices for animals experiencing bacterial diseases.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Changes in food production and dietary practices are occurring faster than our understanding of their potential impact on children's health. Traditionally, pediatric gastroenterologists have studied food with respect to its nutritive value and digestibility, its influence on metabolism, its growth-promoting characteristics, and its relationship to risk and severity of disease. Biotechnology is now expanding the science of food to include disease prevention and treatment, as well as the feeding of children on a global scale.
This study addresses which specific values play a role in predicting participants' attitudes toward genetically modified food (GMF) and organically grown food (OGF). The first central question is whether the attitudes towards GMF and OGF are influenced by specific values and beliefs. The second central question is whether the attitudes towards GMF and OGF are related to each other, and whether the specific values underlying these two attitudes are also related to each other.
This study examines people's acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food. Results suggest that GM acceptance depends most on how natural the genetically modified product is perceived and not directly on how natural the non-GM product is seen. A GM product that is perceived as more natural is more likely to be accepted than a GM product that is perceived as less natural. The extent to which GM affects the perceived naturalness of a product partly depends on the kind of product.
This survey showed that the values power (dominance over nature and resources) and universalism (respect for people and for nature) are related to attitudes toward genetically modified food (GMF) and organically grown food (OGF). Furthermore, these values have an influence on the centrality, commitment and ambivalence of these attitudes. Values that are positively related to an attitude influence how central this attitude is to a person. However, values that are negatively related to an attitude have a larger effect on the commitment of this attitude.