Women can adopt health practices that will help them to maintain good health throughout their various life stages. Women can take charge of their health by maintaining a nutritionally balanced diet, exercising, and using common sense. Women can also employ known preventive measures against osteoporosis, stroke, lung and breast cancer and accidents. Because women experience increased longevity and may require long-term care with age, the need for restructuring the nation's care system for the elderly becomes an important women's health concern.
The health of the Portuguese has improved considerably in the last twenty years. Economic and social transformations that have contributed to the progressive amelioration of problems of feeding, sanitation, hygiene, housing and social conditions in general, as well as health services, have had decisive effect on this phenomenon. The spectacular regression of the indicators related to transmitted diseases, infant, perinatal (more than 50% between 1985 and 1994) and maternal mortality, and the mortality of children 1 to 4 yr old, also reflects this impact.
HIV appeared in Ireland following an opiate epidemic in the early 1980s. Initially, however, the gay community mounted the only response to the spread of the virus while the implementation of early actions by the government was hampered by the constructions of the disease within Irish society. This paper considers the influence of the religious hierarchy in both the development of AIDS policy and in the shaping of public perceptions of the disease and those affected.
In addressing issues of access to health care and rationing, Jewish and Roman Catholic writers identify similar guiding values and specific concerns. Moral thinkers in each tradition tend to support the guarantee of universal access to at least a basic level of health care for all members of society, based on such values as human dignity, justice, and healing. Catholic writers are more likely to frame their arguments in terms of the common good and to be more accepting of rationing that denies beneficial and needed health care to some persons.
A bill was introduced into the Tennessee legislature in the 2005 session that would require emergency departments to offer and dispense emergency contraception to sexual assault survivors who are at risk of pregnancy. Several advocacy groups collaborated to form the Women's Health Safety Network for the purpose of communicating as one voice. The advocacy coalition framework of policy development is applied to the political system and is used as a model to discuss issues impacting policy development for this particular bill.
This study is aimed at examining how subsequent Peruvian governments, since 1990, have addressed reproductive rights, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and sexual diversity rights, as well as the drastic policy shifts and its many contradictions. Abortion and contraception consistently generated the deepest public controversies and debates, which made progress in reproductive rights difficult. HIV/AIDS was often portrayed as having the potential to affect everyone, which allowed advocates and activists to achieve some success in advancing HIV/AIDS-related rights.
First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution.
The fall of state socialism in Poland in 1989 constituted a critical moment that redefined policies regulating reproductive health and access to care. As the Polish state adopted the discourse and agenda of the Catholic Church in its health policies, reproduction and sexuality became sites of moral governance through the implementation of the Conscience Clause law, which permits healthcare providers to deny medical services citing conscience-based objections.
The new Penal Code in 2009 was an opportunity for Timor-Leste to allow some legal grounds for abortion, which was highly restricted under Indonesian rule. Public debate was contentious before ratification of the new code, which allowed abortion to save a woman's life and health. A month later, 13 amendments to the code were passed, highly restricting abortion again.