PURPOSE: The paper aims to take a reflective stance on the relationship between policy/evidence and practice, which, the authors argue, is conceptually under-developed. The paper aims to show that current research perspectives fail to frame evidence and policy in relation to practice. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A qualitative study was conducted in the English NHS in four Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Seventy-five observations of meetings and 52 semi-structured interviews were completed.
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
In this article, we have identified some of the ethical considerations related to evidence-based practice and surrounding issues as they bear on occupational therapy and rehabilitation. We acknowledge that practitioners are professionally and morally obligated to ensure that their decisions are informed and reflect best practices. Further, we recognize the value of encouraging practitioners to assume responsibility for searching and appraising available evidence so that informed options can be shared with patients. Table 1 summarizes the ethical considerations in evidence-based practice.
Several authors have written of the need to embrace occupation and use it to energise our practice, research and education for the benefit of the profession, individual occupational therapists and ultimately, and most significantly, our clients. However, Wilcock (1999) best summarises the issues and the work that must be done, calling for the profession to adopt a consistent professional philosophy. This approach is entirely congruent with the paradigm approach proposed by Kielhofner (2009). Reinforcing the ideas of Doris Sym, Wilcock (p.
Meta-analysis is an impressive tool for systematic synthesis of health care management and policy research findings. Used wisely, it can impose an appealing order on the chaos of a large body of evidence. Occasionally, it can even contribute to resolution of a clinical controversy. However, the technique is currently in a state of evolution. Until it is further refined and standardized, its consumers must be mindful of its limitations and use meta-analytic reviews with care.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes research and commentaries on psychotherapy for adults with intellectual disabilities published since 2008. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been very few empirical studies of the effectiveness of psychotherapy in this context over recent years despite a strong perception that such approaches are not only necessary but also of great value. There have been some interesting, though so far only suggestive, findings concerning the relationship between intellectual level and suitability for treatment, primarily with cognitive behavioural therapy.
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Homeopathy has been provided by the National Health Service in the UK for over 60 years, funded largely by taxpayer's money. However, in recent years, its provision has come under much criticism questioning its true value. Taking a neutral stance, arguments both for and against the provision of homeopathy on the NHS is presented. It includes issues such as the evidence and safety profile of homeopathy, but also takes into account costs and benefits of homeopathy in a wider perspective.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence of the use and efficacy for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A systematic literature search in MEDLINE was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Moreover, a selective literature search for health services research studies on the use of CAM in patients with IBD was performed. RESULTS: Health services research studies showed a high use of CAM in adult and pediatric patients with IBD worldwide.
BACKGROUND: Homeopathy use continues to grow in many European countries, and some studies have examined the characteristics of patients using homeopathy within the general population. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for homeopathy use among internal medicine patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among all patients being referred to the Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine at Essen, Germany, over a 3-year period.
OBJECTIVE: To review systematically all reports of economic analysis of complementary and alternative medicine. METHOD: Searches were performed in Medline, Embase and AMED for reports of cost description, cost comparison, cost effectiveness, or cost benefit studies. Prospective studies that investigated comparative groups were considered to be of higher quality. RESULTS: A total of 34 reports was included.
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing ?3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with ?2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year.