Health Status Disparities

Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, major challenges remain in achieving access, retention, and adherence. Our inner-city HIV clinical practice in Baltimore has a diverse patient population with high rates of poverty, black race, and injection drug use (IDU), providing us the opportunity to compare health process and outcomes.

Author(s): 
Moore, Richard D.
Keruly, Jeanne C.
Bartlett, John G.
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Morbidity and mortality are greater among socially disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Greater chronic stress exposure in disadvantaged groups may contribute to this by accelerating cellular aging, indexed by shorter age-adjusted telomere length. While studies consistently relate shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) to stress, the few studies, mostly from the UK, examining associations of LTL with SES have been mixed.

Author(s): 
Adler, Nancy
Pantell, Matthew S.
O'Donovan, Aoife
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Cawthon, Richard
Koster, Annemarie
Opresko, Patricia
Newman, Anne
Harris, Tamara B.
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Theory suggests that chronic stress associated with disadvantaged social status may lead to acceleration in the rate of decline in physiological functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cell aging, in children. We examined SES and LTL in 70 white and black US children aged 7-13 who participated in the community-based AMERICO (Admixture Mapping for Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes) study. LTL was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

Author(s): 
Needham, Belinda L.
Fernandez, Jose R.
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

BACKGROUND: Many factors affect recovery from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, including patient sex. However, sex differences in time to maximal recovery of knee function and factors influencing differential rates of recovery are unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We determined (1) preoperative sex differences, (2) sex differences in rate and extent of recovery through 1 year postoperatively, and (3) clinical and fitness variables that could explain potential sex differences in recovery from partial meniscectomy.

Author(s): 
Rosenberger, Patricia H.
Dhabhar, Firdaus S.
Epel, Elissa
Jokl, Peter
Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine

BACKGROUND: One of the largest health disparities in the USA is in obesity rates between Black and White females. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stress-obesity link is stronger in Black females than in White females aged 10-19.

Author(s): 
Tomiyama, A. Janet
Puterman, Eli
Epel, Elissa S.
Rehkopf, David H.
Laraia, Barbara A.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Theory suggests that chronic stress associated with disadvantaged social status may lead to acceleration in the rate of decline in physiological functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cell aging, in children. We examined SES and LTL in 70 white and black US children aged 7-13 who participated in the community-based AMERICO (Admixture Mapping for Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes) study. LTL was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

Author(s): 
Needham, Belinda L.
Fernandez, Jose R.
Lin, Jue
Epel, Elissa S.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Morbidity and mortality are greater among socially disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Greater chronic stress exposure in disadvantaged groups may contribute to this by accelerating cellular aging, indexed by shorter age-adjusted telomere length. While studies consistently relate shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) to stress, the few studies, mostly from the UK, examining associations of LTL with SES have been mixed.

Author(s): 
Adler, Nancy
Pantell, Matthew S.
O'Donovan, Aoife
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Cawthon, Richard
Koster, Annemarie
Opresko, Patricia
Newman, Anne
Harris, Tamara B.
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

BACKGROUND: The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens. METHODS: Data were from nationally representative surveys in the UK (n = 4064), Finland (n = 5078), Germany (n = 1454) and Australia (n = 2292) conducted from 1998 to 2002. The typology of Korpi and Palme classifies these countries into four different welfare states.

Author(s): 
Sanders, A. E.
Slade, G. D.
John, M. T.
Steele, J. G.
Suominen-Taipale, A. L.
Lahti, S.
Nuttall, N. M.
Allen, P. Finbarr
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses.

Author(s): 
van der Wel, Kjetil A.
Dahl, Espen
Thielen, Karsten
Publication Title: 
International Journal for Equity in Health

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. METHODS: Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25-59 years, within 21 European welfare states.

Author(s): 
Saltkjel, Therese
Dahl, Espen
van der Wel, Kjetil A.

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