Health

Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Reviews

Aging is the major biomedical challenge of this century. The percentage of elderly people, and consequently the incidence of age-related diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, is projected to increase considerably in the coming decades. Findings from model organisms have revealed that aging is a surprisingly plastic process that can be manipulated by both genetic and environmental factors.

Author(s): 
de Magalhães, João Pedro
Wuttke, Daniel
Wood, Shona H.
Plank, Michael
Vora, Chintan
Publication Title: 
Nature

Calorie restriction (CR), a reduction of 10–40% in intake of a nutritious diet, is often reported as the most robust non-genetic mechanism to extend lifespan and healthspan. CR is frequently used as a tool to understand mechanisms behind ageing and age-associated diseases. In addition to and independently of increasing lifespan, CR has been reported to delay or prevent the occurrence of many chronic diseases in a variety of animals. Beneficial effects of CR on outcomes such as immune function, motor coordination and resistance to sarcopenia in rhesus monkeys have recently been reported.

Author(s): 
Mattison, Julie A.
Roth, George S.
Beasley, T. Mark
Tilmont, Edward M.
Handy, April M.
Herbert, Richard L.
Longo, Dan L.
Allison, David B.
Young, Jennifer E.
Bryant, Mark
Barnard, Dennis
Ward, Walter F.
Qi, Wenbo
Ingram, Donald K.
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction of food intake while avoiding malnutrition, can delay the onset of cancer and age-related diseases in several species, including mice. In addition, depending of the genetic background, CR can also increase or decrease mouse longevity. This has highlighted the importance of identifying the molecular pathways that interplay with CR in modulating longevity. Significant lifespan extension in mice has been recently achieved through over-expression of the catalytic subunit of mouse telomerase (mTERT) in a cancer protective background.

Author(s): 
Vera, Elsa
Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno
Foronda, Miguel
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
Nature Communications

Metformin is a drug commonly prescribed to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we show that long-term treatment with metformin (0.1% w/w in diet) starting at middle age extends healthspan and lifespan in male mice, while a higher dose (1% w/w) was toxic. Treatment with metformin mimics some of the benefits of calorie restriction, such as improved physical performance, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels without a decrease in caloric intake.

Author(s): 
Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro
Mercken, Evi M.
Mitchell, Sarah J.
Palacios, Hector H.
Mote, Patricia L.
Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten
Gomes, Ana P.
Ward, Theresa M.
Minor, Robin K.
Blouin, Marie-José
Schwab, Matthias
Pollak, Michael
Zhang, Yongqing
Yu, Yinbing
Becker, Kevin G.
Bohr, Vilhelm A.
Ingram, Donald K.
Sinclair, David A.
Wolf, Norman S.
Spindler, Stephen R.
Bernier, Michel
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

After discussing some important alternative approaches, different interpretations are presented of the concepts of health, disease, diagnosis, therapy and patient. These differences are elucidated in three main frames of medical thinking: the pharmaceutical, the integrational and the holistic model. Attention is given to the problem of scientific proof, especially in relation to the effectiveness of alternative therapies. In a concluding paragraph it is attempted to analyse the (social) backgrounds of the controversy between regular and alternative medicine.

Author(s): 
Aakster, C. W.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), an important part of health care in China and with increased popularity worldwide, has received extensive attention from governments at all levels. With the current emphasis on clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness, TCM, as indeed do all other treatments, requires rigorous evidence to be considered in reimbursement decision-making.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Fang
Kong, Lin-lin
Zhang, Yi-ye
Li, Shu-chuen
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

During recent years, new advances in the field of estrogen signaling (e.g., the discovery of the second estrogen receptor named ERβ) have led to the conclusion that all the major human tissues are estrogen-responsive. The impact of estrogen on human health is far more complex and stronger than scientists had previously thought. Several scientists suggested that the interplay between ERα and ERβ (antagonism, synergism, etc.) simulates a Yin-Yang relationship.

Author(s): 
Gilca, Marilena
Stoian, Irina
Gaman, Laura
Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 10-week Tai Chi (TC) program on neuropsychological, psychological, and physical health of female cancer survivors. DESIGN: Twenty-three women with a history of cancer participated in 60-min TC classes two times/week for 10-weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Before and after the intervention, participants completed neuropsychological tests (memory, executive functioning, language, and attention); 5 tests of balance; and self-report questionnaires of neuropsychological complaints, stress and mood, and fatigue.

Author(s): 
Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.
Matsuda, Sandy
Cox, Cathy R.
Publication Title: 
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 10-week Tai Chi (TC) program on neuropsychological, psychological, and physical health of female cancer survivors. DESIGN: Twenty-three women with a history of cancer participated in 60-min TC classes two times/week for 10-weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Before and after the intervention, participants completed neuropsychological tests (memory, executive functioning, language, and attention); 5 tests of balance; and self-report questionnaires of neuropsychological complaints, stress and mood, and fatigue.

Author(s): 
Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.
Matsuda, Sandy
Cox, Cathy R.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

BACKGROUND: Stress reducing effects of Taiji, a mindful and gentle form of body movement, have been reported in previous studies, but standardized and controlled experimental studies are scarce. The present study investigates the effect of regular Taiji practice on psychobiological stress response in healthy men and women. METHODS: 70 participants were randomly assigned to either Taiji classes or a waiting list.

Author(s): 
Nedeljkovic, Marko
Ausfeld-Hafter, Brigitte
Streitberger, Konrad
Seiler, Roland
Wirtz, Petra H.

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