Healthy Volunteers

Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies have documented the effectiveness of qigong exercise in helping people reduce psychological stress and anxiety, but there is a scarcity of systematic reviews evaluating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted among healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirteen databases were searched for RCTs from their inception through June 2013. Effects of qigong exercise were pooled across trials. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test.

Author(s): 
Wang, Chong-Wen
Chan, Celia H. Y.
Ho, Rainbow T. H.
Chan, Jessie S. M.
Ng, Siu-man
Chan, Cecilia L. W.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society

The clinical pattern of neuropathic pain, diagnosed using the quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain), could be partly mimicked in healthy volunteers after topical capsaicin application. However, similar to clinical neuropathic pain that develops in only a subgroup of patients who have a neurologic lesion, this attempt to mimick a neuropathic pain pattern succeeded only in a small fraction (18%) of healthy individuals.

Author(s): 
Dimova, Violeta
Oertel, Bruno G.
Kabakci, G¸lden
Zimmermann, Michael
Hermens, Hanneke
Lautenbacher, Stefan
Ultsch, Alfred
Lˆtsch, Jˆrn
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)

BACKGROUND: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces "prosocial" effects that contribute to its recreational use. Few studies have examined the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms by which MDMA produces these effects. Here we examined the effect of MDMA on a specific prosocial effect, i.e. generosity, using a task in which participants make decisions about whether they or another person will receive money (Welfare Trade-Off Task; WTT). METHODS: The project included one study without drug administration and one with MDMA.

Author(s): 
Kirkpatrick, Matthew
Delton, Andrew W.
Robertson, Theresa E.
de Wit, Harriet
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Severe malaria results in over a million deaths every year, most of them in children aged less than five years and living in sub-Saharan Africa. Injectable artesunate (AS) was recommended as initial treatment for severe malaria by WHO in 2006. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) has been developing a novel good manufacturing practice (GMP) injection of AS, which was approved by the US FDA for investigational drug use and distribution by the CDC.

Author(s): 
Miller, Robert Scott
Li, Qigui
Cantilena, Louis R.
Leary, Kevin J.
Saviolakis, George A.
Melendez, Victor
Smith, Bryan
Weina, Peter J.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Artesun-Plus is a fixed-dose combination antimalarial agent containing artesunate and amodiaquine. The current study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of Artesun-Plus and the WHO-designated comparator product Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop. To overcome the high intrasubject variability of artesunate, the study applied a two-sequence and four-period crossover (2 by 4), replicate study design to assess bioequivalence between the two products in 31 healthy male Chinese volunteers under fasting conditions.

Author(s): 
Liu, Yun
Hu, Chaoying
Liu, Gangyi
Jia, Jingying
Yu, Chen
Zhu, Jianmin
Zheng, Qingsi
Zhang, Kanyin E.
Publication Title: 
The Indian Journal of Medical Research

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques.

Author(s): 
Turankar, A. V.
Jain, S.
Patel, S. B.
Sinha, S. R.
Joshi, A. D.
Vallish, B. N.
Mane, P. R.
Turankar, S. A.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Standardized extracts of the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) (Brahmi) have been recently shown to have cognitive enhancing effects in chronic administration studies. Pre-clinical work has also identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and cardiovascular effects of BM. There has, however, been little research on the acute effects of BM on cognitive function.

Author(s): 
Downey, Luke A.
Kean, James
Nemeh, Fiona
Lau, Angela
Poll, Alex
Gregory, Rebecca
Murray, Margaret
Rourke, Johanna
Patak, Brigit
Pase, Matthew P.
Zangara, Andrea
Lomas, Justine
Scholey, Andrew
Stough, Con
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

The oxidation and nitration of unsaturated fatty acids transforms cell membrane and lipoprotein constituents into mediators that regulate signal transduction. The formation of 9-NO2-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid and 12-NO2-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid stems from peroxynitrite- and myeloperoxidase-derived nitrogen dioxide reactions as well as secondary to nitrite disproportionation under the acidic conditions of digestion. Broad anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective responses are mediated by nitro-fatty acids.

Author(s): 
Salvatore, Sonia R.
Vitturi, Dario A.
Baker, Paul R. S.
Bonacci, Gustavo
Koenitzer, Jeffrey R.
Woodcock, Steven R.
Freeman, Bruce A.
Schopfer, Francisco J.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extracts, one of the most widely used dietary supplements, contain a mixture of six major flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, and silydianin) and other components. However, the pharmacokinetics of the free individual flavonolignans have been only partially investigated in humans. Furthermore, antioxidant effects of the extract, which may underlie the basis of many therapeutic effects, have not been thoroughly assessed.

Author(s): 
Zhu, Hao-Jie
Brinda, Bryan J.
Chavin, Kenneth D.
Bernstein, Hilary J.
Patrick, Kennerly S.
Markowitz, John S.
Publication Title: 
Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.)

OBJECTIVE: Although poor sleep is a consequence of pain, sleep disturbance reciprocally induces hyperalgesia and exacerbates clinical pain. Conceptual models of chronic pain implicate dysfunctional supraspinal pain processing mechanisms, mediated in part by endogenous opioid peptides. Our preliminary work indicates that sleep disruption impairs psychophysical measures of descending pain modulation, but few studies have investigated whether insufficient sleep may be associated with alterations in endogenous opioid systems.

Author(s): 
Campbell, Claudia M.
Bounds, Sara C.
Kuwabara, Hiroto
Edwards, Robert R.
Campbell, James N.
Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.
Smith, Michael T.

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