Reports of successful attempts at resuscitation have been published for more than 200 years, but systematic analysis of an optimal technique has been undertaken for only the last 20 years. As a result of these experiments and of the many years of experience of resuscitation teams, extensive recommendations were formulated by a conference on cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the "American Heart Association" in May 1973.
Restoration of adequate spontaneous circulation after "arrest" and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of 546 patients before and 460 patients after initiation of a CPR training course in a 500-bed city hospital is reported. Between January 1972 and June 1976, adequate circulation after CPR was present in 38.6% of patients before and 50.4% after training ICU nurses and house physicians in modern resuscitation techniques.
Factors that may influence energy requirements for ventricular defibrillation include the duration of fibrillation and the mode of resuscitation. The present study assesses the effect of these influences on the energy needed for defibrillation. Dogs were anesthetized, and arterial blood pressure and Lead II of the ECG were continuously recorded. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced in each dog for a period of 1, 3, 5, or 9 min.
Cardiac arrest is most commonly encountered as the end result of severe derangements in metabolic homeostasis. These derangements may include toxic, ischemic, or electrophysiological causes of circulatory and/or respiratory arrests. Occasionally, mechanical obstruction or impediment to circulation may cause cardiac arrest, and forms of resuscitation other than closed chest massage may be required to remove or relieve obstruction. Two cases of cardiac arrest due to mechanical impairment of blood flow are presented.
We investigated whether anesthetized dogs (n = 6) could be resuscitated from massive cardiovascular toxic intravenous bupivacaine overdoses. Five mg/kg of bupivacaine was given into the right atrium over 10 sec every minute until cardiac collapse occurred. At the same time the bupivacaine was given, the animals were made apneic for 90 sec (to mimic the clinical situation in which seizures often render patients apneic) and then ventilated with 100% oxygen.
131 patients received permanent pacemakers to treat their hypersensitive carotis sinus syndrome (HCSS). Prior to implantation, HCSS was diagnosed whenever spontaneous episodes of faintness or dizziness (n = 25) or syncope (n = 106) coincided with an abnormal response to carotis sinus massage (asystole greater than 3 s). 123 patients were followed for 48 +/- 27 months after implantation to assess the value of pacemaker therapy. 77% of all patients were free of initial symptoms. 90% of patients with syncope prior to pacemaker therapy were free of recurrence.
Compared to standard closed chest CPR, open chest cardiac massage improves vital organ perfusion and survival in animal models of medical cardiac arrest. Yet its use is essentially limited to the treatment of traumatic arrest. Three cases of medical cardiac arrest are presented in which open chest compression was used after failure of external chest compression. These cases illustrate the range of potential outcomes and how this therapy can be optimally applied.
BACKGROUND: Conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest after open-heart surgery in children is often unsuccessful despite the ability to perform open-chest massage. The purpose of this study was to review our results with mechanical support as rescue therapy in children with sudden circulatory arrest after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 1981 through 1991, we have used mechanical support with an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) circuit for cardiac support in 33 children.