Heat-Shock Proteins

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Calorie restriction (CR) produces several health benefits and increases lifespan in many species. Studies suggest that alternate-day fasting (ADF) and exercise can also provide these benefits. Whether CR results in lifespan extension in humans is not known and a direct investigation is not feasible. However, phenotypes observed in CR animals when compared to ad libitum fed (AL) animals, including increased stress resistance and changes in protein expression, can be simulated in cells cultured with media supplemented with blood serum from CR and AL animals.

Author(s): 
Allard, Joanne S.
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Smith, Carolina
Hunt, Nicole D.
Ingram, Donald K.
Ravussin, Eric
Pennington CALERIE Team
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biotechnology

It has been widely reported that CHO cells undergo apoptosis in culture, despite supplementation of nutrients through fed-batch strategies. Improvement of cell viability in culture can effectively improve recombinant protein yield through extension of the culture's production lifespan, especially at high cell densities. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been reported to demonstrate anti-apoptotic effects against a wide range of physical and chemical stimuli through their ability to bind and act as antagonists to critical apoptotic molecules.

Author(s): 
Lee, Yih Yean
Wong, Kathy T. K.
Tan, Janice
Toh, Poh Choo
Mao, Yanying
Brusic, Vesna
Yap, Miranda G. S.
Publication Title: 
Molecular genetics and genomics: MGG

The heat shock factor (HSF), a protein evolutionarily conserved from yeasts to human, regulates the expression of a set of proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs), many of which function as molecular chaperones. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HSF binds to the 5' upstream region of YGR146C and activates its transcription. YGR146C encodes a functional homolog of ecl1 (+), ecl2 (+), and ecl3 (+) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. At present, these Ecl1 family genes, which are extenders of chronological lifespan, have been identified only in fungi groups.

Author(s): 
Ohtsuka, Hokuto
Azuma, Kenko
Murakami, Hiroshi
Aiba, Hirofumi
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Multicellular organisms are composed of an interactive network of various tissues that are functionally organized as discrete organs. If aging were slowed in a specific tissue or organ how would that impact longevity at the organismal level? In recent years, molecular genetic approaches in invertebrate model systems have dramatically improved our understanding of the aging process and have provided insight into the preceding question.

Author(s): 
Rera, Michael
Azizi, Masoud J.
Walker, David W.
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (official symbol: NFE2L2, alias: Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidant defense system, which makes it an attractive target for manipulations that aim to increase cellular resistance to oxidative stress.

Author(s): 
Baldelli, Sara
Aquilano, Katia
Ciriolo, Maria R.
Publication Title: 
Gerontology

This short review portrays the evolutionary theories of aging in the light of the existing discoveries from genomic and molecular genetic studies on aging and longevity. At the outset, an historical background for the development of the evolutionary theories of aging is presented through the works of August Weismann (programmed death and the germ plasm theories) including his exceptional theoretical postulation, later experimentally validated by the existence of cell division limits.

Author(s): 
Ljubuncic, Predrag
Reznick, Abraham Z.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Multicellular organisms are composed of an interactive network of various tissues that are functionally organized as discrete organs. If aging were slowed in a specific tissue or organ how would that impact longevity at the organismal level? In recent years, molecular genetic approaches in invertebrate model systems have dramatically improved our understanding of the aging process and have provided insight into the preceding question.

Author(s): 
Rera, Michael
Azizi, Masoud J.
Walker, David W.
Publication Title: 
PLoS genetics

TDP-43 is a multifunctional nucleic acid binding protein linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia. To learn more about the normal biological and abnormal pathological role of this protein, we turned to Caenorhabditis elegans and its orthologue TDP-1. We report that TDP-1 functions in the Insulin/IGF pathway to regulate longevity and the oxidative stress response downstream from the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO3a.

Author(s): 
Vaccaro, Alexandra
Tauffenberger, Arnaud
Ash, Peter E. A.
Carlomagno, Yari
Petrucelli, Leonard
Parker, J. Alex
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cellular Physiology

Oxidative stress results from damage to tissues caused by free radicals and is increased by exercise. Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) maintain the cellular reducing environment by scavenging intracellular hydrogen peroxide. It has been recently noted that physical exercise has a positive effect on the PRX system, exerting a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced damage. However, other compounds, such as sestrins (SESNs), a stress-inducible protein family with antioxidant properties, should also be considered in the function of PRXs.

Author(s): 
Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Hyperthermia: The Official Journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group

Heat shock proteins (HSP) are molecular chaperones and have been implicated in longevity and aging in many species. Their major functions include chaperoning misfolded or newly synthesised polypeptides, protecting cells from proteotoxic stress, and processing of immunogenic agents. These proteins are expressed constitutively and can be induced by stresses such as heat, oxidative stress and many more. The induction of HSP in aging could potentially maintain protein homeostasis and longevity by refolding the damaged proteins which accumulate during aging and are toxic to cells.

Author(s): 
Murshid, Ayesha
Eguchi, Takanori
Calderwood, Stuart K.

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