OBJECTIVE: The OPRM1 gene was studied for DNA methylation in opioid dependence and possible paternal contribution to epigenetic inheritance of altered methylation profiles. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood and sperm from 13 male opioid addicts and 21 male control subjects. DNA methylation was determined by pyrosequencing in 24 CpG sites at the OPRM1 promoter region. RESULTS: The authors found significantly increased overall methylation in blood DNA from addicted subjects (Kruskal-Wallis [K-W] p = 0.013).
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in modulating neural and behavioral plasticity to drugs of abuse. We found a persistent downregulation of exon-specific Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to chronic opiate exposure, which was mediated by specific epigenetic modifications at the corresponding Bdnf gene promoters.
The inundation which characterizes the heroin world focuses one's attention almost exclusively on drugs. Heroin often provides an addicted couple with commonality and a necessary focus in their relationship. However, lacking sexuality and other nondrug activities, heroin begins to undermine the relationship. The addict couple often begins to argue over money and drugs. There is bitterness, resentment, and often violence as a result of perceived inequalities on the part of one partner or the other. Finally, most addict-couples' relationships end on a sad and bitter note.
BACKGROUND: Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. RESULTS: These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal.
INTRODUCTION: The objective is to evaluate the presence of Machiavellian intelligence with the MACH-IV Scale in antisocial patients versus community controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Categorical diagnosis and dimensional evaluation program according to IPDE were obtained from 26 controls from the community and 40 patients from a methadone program. Both groups were evaluated on cooperation with TCI and on Machiavellian intelligence with MACH-IV.
Peer-delivered HIV prevention and intervention programs play an important role in halting the spread of HIV. Rigorous scientific analysis of the aforementioned programs has focused on the immediate reduction of risk-related behaviors among the target populations. In our longitudinal study of the Risk Avoidance Partnership Peer Intervention for HIV, we assessed the long-term behavioral effects of a peer-led HIV intervention project with active drug users.
Ten drug addicted women, inpatient in a judicial psychiatric hospital, after detoxification were treated by means of valproic acid amide (1200 mg/daily for the first 14 days, then reduced to 600 mg/daily) and hypnosis, for a period ranging between 46 and 180 days. According to lowering of the intensity of 6 target symptoms, positive results on habit loosing were checked in 7 out of 10 Ss. To these results, right importance is attributed even to the forcibly removal from addicts' environment.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of opiate drug addicts on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) continue using heroin and additional street drugs simultaneously. They constitute the most difficult to treat population in MMT centers as they present extremely difficult and negative behaviors as well as medical problems. Medical hypnosis is a proven effective medical intervention to alleviate pain, lessen anxieties, as well as being partially effective in treating nicotine addiction.
The American Journal on Addictions / American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions
A large proportion of patients treated for substance dependencies have attempted suicide. Scarce empirical evidence exists regarding their prognosis. Data from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Survey were analyzed to determine the course of depression and substance dependence of 416 suicide attempters one year after discharge. The likelihood of recovery from drug dependence did not differ between patients who did or did not attempt suicide.