Hexosamines

Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. T. chebula treated wounds healed much faster as indicated by improved rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization. Biochemical studies revealed a significant increase in total protein, DNA and collagen contents in the granulation tissues of treated wounds. The levels of hexosamine and uronic acid in these tissues, also increased upto day 8 post-wounding.

Author(s): 
Suguna, Lonchin
Singh, Surjeet
Sivakumar, Pitchumani
Sampath, Padmavathi
Chandrakasan, Gowri
Publication Title: 
Cell

Aging entails a progressive decline in protein homeostasis, which often leads to age-related diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. Correct folding of ER proteins requires covalent attachment of N-linked glycan oligosaccharides. Here, we report that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway improves ER protein homeostasis and extends lifespan in C. elegans.

Author(s): 
Denzel, Martin S.
Storm, Nadia J.
Gutschmidt, Aljona
Baddi, Ruth
Hinze, Yvonne
Jarosch, Ernst
Sommer, Thomas
Hoppe, Thorsten
Antebi, Adam
Publication Title: 
Cell

The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) generates metabolites for protein N- and O-glycosylation. Wang et al. and Denzel et al. report a hitherto unknown link between the HBP and stress in the endoplasmic reticulum. These studies establish the HBP as a critical component of the cellular machinery of protein homeostasis.

Author(s): 
Vincenz, Lisa
Hartl, F. Ulrich
Publication Title: 
Cell

Aging entails a progressive decline in protein homeostasis, which often leads to age-related diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein synthesis and maturation for secreted and membrane proteins. Correct folding of ER proteins requires covalent attachment of N-linked glycan oligosaccharides. Here, we report that increased synthesis of N-glycan precursors in the hexosamine pathway improves ER protein homeostasis and extends lifespan in C. elegans.

Author(s): 
Denzel, Martin S.
Storm, Nadia J.
Gutschmidt, Aljona
Baddi, Ruth
Hinze, Yvonne
Jarosch, Ernst
Sommer, Thomas
Hoppe, Thorsten
Antebi, Adam
Publication Title: 
Endocrinology

We recently found that plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) polymerization was diminished in hyperinsulinemic cell culture models of insulin resistance. Here we delineated whether increased glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) causes the PIP(2)/F-actin dysregulation and insulin resistance induced by hyperinsulinemia.

Author(s): 
Bhonagiri, Padma
Pattar, Guruprasad R.
Horvath, Emily M.
Habegger, Kirk M.
McCarthy, Alicia M.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is an essential micronutrient. Findings since the 1950s suggest that Cr3+ might benefit cholesterol homeostasis. Here we present mechanistic evidence in support of this role of Cr3+. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which are rendered ineffective by the hyperinsulinemia that is known to accompany disorders of lipid metabolism, was corrected by Cr3+.

Author(s): 
Sealls, Whitney
Penque, Brent A.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
Endocrinology

Hyperinsulinemia is known to promote the progression/worsening of insulin resistance. Evidence reveals a hidden cost of hyperinsulinemia on plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2))-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) structure, components critical to the normal operation of the insulin-regulated glucose transport system. Here we delineated whether increased glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) causes PIP(2)/F-actin dysregulation and subsequent insulin resistance.

Author(s): 
Bhonagiri, Padma
Pattar, Guruprasad R.
Habegger, Kirk M.
McCarthy, Alicia M.
Tackett, Lixuan
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Subscribe to RSS - Hexosamines