Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women.
This paper is written from a psychodynamic clinician's perspective, juxtaposing a psychoanalytic-attachment model of depression with recent developments in neuroscience. Three main components of the attachment approach are described: the role of loss, of childhood trauma predisposing to depression in later life, and failure of co-regulation of role of primitive emotions, such as fear, despair, and helplessness. Blatt's distinction between anaclitic and introjective depression is delineated and related to hyper- and de-activation of the attachment dynamic.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie
An integrative model of family functioning is put forward using a sociobiological framework. Three key sociobiological concepts that have a relevance to family interaction are inclusive fitness, altruism, and a struggle for status. The term 'inclusive fitness' encompasses the parents' own fitness and that of their kith and kin. Altruism refers to how parents promote the survival of their progeny and extended family. The struggle for status refers to a struggle for power and prestige.
Twenty-four same-sex, three-person groups (a confederate plus two naive participants) completed a "group decision-making study" in which the success of the group depended upon the willingness of one of its members (the confederate) to endure pain and inconvenience. The ordeal that the altruistic confederate endured was judged to be more difficult and costly than the experience of other group members, and the altruists were ultimately awarded more money and accorded higher status.
William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article, we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism and describe the first candidate genes affecting altruism from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically based trade-offs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between alleles for altruism and alleles for non-social cognition.
"The correlation between justice and organizational citizenship behavior and organizational identity among the nurses", aimed to correlate different aspects of personal feelings and organizational identity in a population of nurses. The population included all nurses working at hospitals affiliated to administry of health, treatment and medical education in Shahre-Kord (Iran) 2009. A sample consisting of 168 nurses was randomly selected out of the population. The study adopted a descriptive-correlative method.