Hippocampus

Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are negatively and positively regulated by a broad range of environmental stimuli that include aging, stress, social interaction, physical activity, and dietary modulation. Interestingly, dietary regulation has a distinct outcome, such that reduced dietary intake enhances neurogenesis, whereas excess calorie intake by a high-fat diet has a negative effect. As a type of metabolic stress, dietary restriction (DR) is also known to extend life span and increase resistance to age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

Author(s): 
Park, Hee Ra
Lee, Jaewon
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

In laboratory animals, calorie restriction (CR) protects against aging, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative pathologies. Reduced levels of growth hormone and IGF-1, which mediate some of the protective effects of CR, can also extend longevity and/or protect against age-related diseases in rodents and humans. However, severely restricted diets are difficult to maintain and are associated with chronically low weight and other major side effects.

Author(s): 
Parrella, Edoardo
Maxim, Tom
Maialetti, Francesca
Zhang, Lu
Wan, Junxiang
Wei, Min
Cohen, Pinchas
Fontana, Luigi
Longo, Valter D.
Publication Title: 
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
Author(s): 
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Epel, Elissa S.
Mellon, Synthia
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Alterations in gene expression in the suicide brain have been reported and for several genes DNA methylation as an epigenetic regulator is thought to play a role. rRNA genes, that encode ribosomal RNA, are the backbone of the protein synthesis machinery and levels of rRNA gene promoter methylation determine rRNA transcription.

Author(s): 
McGowan, Patrick O.
Sasaki, Aya
Huang, Tony C. T.
Unterberger, Alexander
Suderman, Matthew
Ernst, Carl
Meaney, Michael J.
Turecki, Gustavo
Szyf, Moshe
Publication Title: 
Biological Psychiatry

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the reprogramming of gene expression in response to stressful stimuli. This investigation determined whether epigenetic phenomena might similarly be associated with suicide/depression. METHODS: The expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) mRNA was assessed in several brain regions of individuals who had committed suicide and had been diagnosed with major depression relative to that of individuals who had died suddenly as a result of factors other than suicide.

Author(s): 
Poulter, Michael O.
Du, Lisheng
Weaver, Ian C. G.
Palkovits, MiklÛs
Faludi, G·bor
Merali, Zul
Szyf, Moshe
Anisman, Hymie
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in turn sets the stage for a child's psychological and emotional development. This review provides a concise synopsis of those studies investigating the neurobiological and genetic factors associated with childhood maltreatment and adversity.

Author(s): 
McCrory, Eamon
De Brito, Stephane A.
Viding, Essi
Publication Title: 
CNS drugs

Depression is a prevalent, highly debilitating mental disorder affecting up to 15% of the population at least once in their lifetime, with huge costs for society. Neurobiological mechanisms of depression are still not well known, although there is consensus about interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Antidepressant medications are frequently used in depression, but at least 50% of patients are poor responders, even to more recently discovered medications.

Author(s): 
Masi, Gabriele
Brovedani, Paola
Publication Title: 
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry

OBJECTIVES: Major depression is a complex disorder that involves genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in its aetiology. Recent research has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in antidepressant action. However, careful examination of the literature suggests that the complex biological and psychological changes associated with depression cannot be attributed to disturbance in hippocampal neurogenesis alone.

Author(s): 
Tang, Siu W.
Helmeste, Daiga
Leonard, Brian
Publication Title: 
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry: The Official Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: The interplay of genetic and early environmental factors is recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reduced volume of hippocampus and frontal brain regions involved in emotional regulation are already present in unaffected healthy individuals at genetic risk of suffering MDD and to investigate whether early life adversity is a relevant factor interacting with these reduced brain structures.

Author(s): 
Carballedo, Angela
Lisiecka, Danutia
Fagan, Andrew
Saleh, Karim
Ferguson, Yolande
Connolly, Gerard
Meaney, James
Frodl, Thomas
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

Epidemiological evidence implies a role for chronic stress and stress-related disorders in the etiopathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although chronic stress exposure during various stages of life has been shown to exacerbate AD-related cognitive deficits and neuropathology in AD mouse models, the role of stress exposure during the prenatal period on AD development and progression remained to be investigated.

Author(s): 
Sierksma, Annerieke S. R.
Prickaerts, Jos
Chouliaras, Leonidas
Rostamian, Somayeh
Delbroek, Lore
Rutten, Bart P. F.
Steinbusch, Harry W. M.
van den Hove, Daniel L. A.

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