Publication Title: 
Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao = Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

Mice infected with 100 and 50 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae for 7 and 35 d respectively were treated with im artemether 100 mg.kg-1.d-1 or arteether 100 and 300 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 2 d. The mice were killed at different intervals within 28 d after medication and the livers were sectioned for histological and histochemical observations. The results showed that both artemether and arteether caused degeneration in the tegument, intestine and genital gland of the hepatic-shifted worms.

Yin, J. W.
Yang, Y. Q.
Xiao, S. H.
Li, Y.
Jiang, H. J.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The effect of artesunate and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin against the cerebral cysts of Toxoplasma gondii was studied. In vitro experiments were performed with the THP-1 cell line and showed an inhibition of parasite growth of approximately 70% with 0.1-0.5 microg/ml of dihydroartemisinin for 96 hr. However, with artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, or a combination (50:50) of them, the number of tachyzoites decreased approximately 40-50% and they appeared motionless. Fifty-eight to 72 hr after washing of the tachyzoites and THP-1 cells in culture, parasitized cells reappeared.

Sarciron, M. E.
Saccharin, C.
Petavy, A. F.
Peyron, F.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Artemether, an efficacious antimalarial drug, effectively prevents patent schistosome infections and morbidity, as established in laboratory models and in clinical trials. In view of concern about the potential long-term toxicity, rats were treated orally with 80 mg/kg artemether once every 2 weeks for 5 months. After the final treatment, routine blood test results were normal except for reversible reductions of reticulocyte counts and reversible increases in hemoglobin levels.

Xiao, Shuhua
Yang, Yuanqing
You, Qiqing
Utzinger, Jürg
Guo, Huifang
Peiying, Jiao
Mei, Jinying
Guo, Jian
Bergquist, Robert
Tanner, Marcel
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Data on efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. A recent open label, randomized controlled trial in Mbarara, Uganda demonstrated that artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is not inferior to quinine to treat uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy. Haemozoin can persist in the placenta following clearance of parasites, however there is no data whether ACT can influence the amount of haemozoin or the dynamics of haemozoin clearance.

Muehlenbachs, Atis
Nabasumba, Carolyn
McGready, Rose
Turyakira, Eleanor
Tumwebaze, Benon
Dhorda, Mehul
Nyehangane, Dan
Nalusaji, Aisha
Nosten, Franois
Guerin, Philippe J.
Piola, Patrice
Publication Title: 
Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.)

Realgar (As(4)S(4)) and cinnabar (HgS) are frequently included in traditional Chinese medicines and Indian Ayurvedic medicines. Both As and Hg are well known for toxic effects, and their safety is of concern. The aim of this study was to compare chronic nephrotoxicity of An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH), realgar and cinnabar with common arsenicals and mercurials.

Lu, Yuan-Fu
Wu, Qin
Yan, Jun-Wen
Shi, Jing-Zhen
Liu, Jie
Shi, Jing-Shan
Publication Title: 
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of the antimicrobial peptide, lactocin 160. METHODS: Lactocin 160, a product of vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus 160 was evaluated for toxicity and irritation. An in vitro human organotypic vaginal-ectocervical tissue model (EpiVaginal) was employed for the safety testing by determining the exposure time to reduce tissue viability to 50% (ET-50). Hemolytic activity of lactocin160 was tested using 8% of human erythrocyte suspension. Susceptibility of lactobacilli to lactocin160 was also studied.

Dover, Sara E.
Aroutcheva, Alla A.
Faro, S.
Chikindas, Michael L.
Publication Title: 
Microscopy and Microanalysis: The Official Journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada

The current hypothesis of alveolar capillary membrane dysfunction fails to completely explain the severe and persistent leak of protein-rich fluid into the pulmonary interstitium, seen in the exudative phase of acute lung injury (ALI). The presence of intact red blood cells in the pulmonary interstitium may suggest mechanical failure of pulmonary arterioles and venules. These studies involved the pathological and ultrastructural evaluation of the pulmonary vasculature in Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced ALI.

Saeed, Ali Imran
Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu
Price, Robert L.
Barker, James
Nagarkatti, Prakash
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Publication Title: 
Toxicologic Pathology

Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis.

Leite, Rodrigo P.
Predes, Fabrícia S.
Monteiro, Juliana C.
Freitas, Karine M.
Wada, Ronaldo S.
Dolder, Heidi
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. METHODS: Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA.

Bedri, Selma
Khalil, Eltahir A.
Khalid, Sami A.
Alzohairy, Mohammad A.
Mohieldein, Abdlmarouf
Aldebasi, Yousef H.
Seke Etet, Paul Faustin
Farahna, Mohammed
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Rats of the JCR:LA-cp strain, which are homozygous for the cp gene (cp/cp), are obese, insulin-resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. They exhibit associated micro- and macrovascular disease and end-stage ischemic myocardial lesions and are highly stress sensitive. We subjected male cp/cp rats to pair feeding (providing the rats each day with the amount of food eaten by matched freely fed animals), a procedure that alters the diurnal feeding pattern, leading to a state of intermittent caloric restriction.

Russell, James C.
Proctor, Spencer D.
Kelly, Sandra E.
Brindley, David N.


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