History, 18th Century

Publication Title: 
Revue D'histoire De La Pharmacie

In 1796 homeopathy was born by the publication of an Hahnemann's article in a periodic founded by C. W. Hufeland, a German physician, Professor in Iena, who was friendly with Hahnemann during more of thirty years. This periodic, which defended the experimental philosophy and was devoted to the practical medicine, will be nevertheless the mean instrument to spread Hahneman's ideas until the issue of the Organon in 1810.

Author(s): 
Pinet, Patrice
Publication Title: 
Sudhoffs Archiv

As a paradigmatic case study of the origin, spread, and development of medical systems, this paper investigates the 200-years history of homeopathy from different perspectives of medical history. On the basis of new research on Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), first, a concise and critical overview on the principles, explanations, and implications of his doctrine is presented.

Author(s): 
Schmidt, Josef M.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

Conventional sciences have brought forth a wealth of knowledge and benefits, but they have not always been clear and precise about their legitimate scope and methodological limitations. In contrast, new and critical approaches in modern sciences question and reflect their own presuppositions, dependencies, and constraints. Examples are quantum physics, theory and history of science, as well as theory and history of medicine, sociology, and economics.

Author(s): 
Schmidt, Josef M.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Internal Medicine

Homeopathy is a 200-year-old therapeutic system that uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Homeopathy selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Although many conventional physicians find such notions implausible, homeopathy had a prominent place in 19th-century health care and has recently undergone a worldwide revival.

Author(s): 
Jonas, Wayne B.
Kaptchuk, Ted J.
Linde, Klaus
Publication Title: 
Physis; Rivista Internazionale Di Storia Della Scienza

The focus of this paper is the interplay between evidence and theory, which is at the heart of the methodological question. I address it using as a case study the homeopathic medicine discovered/invented by C.S. Hahnemann in the late eighteenth century.

Author(s): 
Mosini, Valeria
Publication Title: 
Headache

Acupuncture, traditional Chinese needle therapy, has become widely used for the relief of headache. The history of the practice of acupuncture in the United States and the theoretical framework for acupuncture in Chinese medicine are reviewed. The basic scientific background and clinical application of acupuncture in the headache management are discussed.

Author(s): 
Zhao, Chong-Hao
Stillman, Mark J.
Rozen, Todd D.
Publication Title: 
Yakushigaku Zasshi

"Mimi-bukuro" is a book written by Moriyasu Negishi in the Edo period. M. Negishi (1737-1815) was a magistrate in the town of Edo. He was very much interested in listening and recording many kinds of stories, which were told by the various kinds of people, such as public officers, samurais, merchants, doctors, etc. Among the stories of this book, some stories were found concerning folk medicine, medicinal substance and charms. In this report, I studied the medicines which were used in these stories. The medicines originated from zoological, botanical and mineral substances.

Author(s): 
Hamada, T.
Publication Title: 
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research

Tibetan medicine is known as the knowledge of healing in the Four Tantras, the main medical text studied by Tibetan doctors. In the 8th century, King Trisong Deutsen (718-785 CE) invited eminent physicians from India, China, Persia, East Turkestan, Mongolia, and Nepal for the First International Medical Symposium in Samye, Tibet and ordered his personal physician Elder Yuthog Yonten Gonpo (708-833 CE), who lived 125 years, and participated in this conference to summarize. By combining all the information available and presented during this symposium, he compiled the Four Tantras.

Author(s): 
Dakpa, Tenzing
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

The idea that putrefaction of the stools causes disease, i.e., intestinal autointoxication, originated with physicians in ancient Egypt. They believed that a putrefactive principle associated with feces was absorbed in to the general circulation, where it acted to produce fever and pus. This description of the materia peccans represented the earliest forerunner of our present notion of endotoxin and its effect.

Author(s): 
Chen, T. S.
Chen, P. S.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Anatomy (New York, N.Y.)

It is remarkable that the famous ÈcorchÈs of HonorÈ Fragonard have survived the centuries to reach us today. Studies carried out by several teams have established details of the technique used by Fragonard that help to explain their longevity. The injection of the vessels was achieved by means of a mixture of mutton tallow and pine resin diluted in essence of turpentine and essential oils. This gave Fragonard a very high success rate. Above all, he did not add pigments to his mixture while injecting the veins, and this facilitated the procedure.

Author(s): 
Degueurce, Christophe
vo Duy, Sung
Bleton, Jean
Hugon, Paulette
Cadot, Laure
Tchapla, Alain
Adds, Philip

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