History, 19th Century

Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

The idea that putrefaction of the stools causes disease, i.e., intestinal autointoxication, originated with physicians in ancient Egypt. They believed that a putrefactive principle associated with feces was absorbed in to the general circulation, where it acted to produce fever and pus. This description of the materia peccans represented the earliest forerunner of our present notion of endotoxin and its effect.

Author(s): 
Chen, T. S.
Chen, P. S.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

Frontier populations provide exceptional opportunities to test the hypothesis of a trade-off between fertility and longevity. In such populations, mechanisms favoring reproduction usually find fertile ground, and if these mechanisms reduce longevity, demographers should observe higher postreproductive mortality among highly fertile women.

Author(s): 
Gagnon, Alain
Smith, Ken R.
Tremblay, Marc
VÈzina, HÈlËne
ParÈ, Paul-Philippe
Desjardins, Bertrand
Publication Title: 
Progress in Clinical and Biological Research
Author(s): 
Darby, W. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

The search for longevity is hardly new. Before recent times, advocates for longevity fell into two general time periods. From the 16th century to the 18th century, individuals worked to extend the lives and vitality of elderly people; they believed senescence was a time of considerable worth. From the 19th century through the early 20th century, however, anti-age advocates generally depicted old age as a time to be feared and despised, devising myriad procedures in order to eliminate it entirely.

Author(s): 
Haber, Carole
Publication Title: 
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Cuisine, broadly food culture, has evolved greatly in the past ten thousand years, following the domestication of plants and animals which greatly increased the food supply and led to villages, cities and civilizations. Major factors in the evolution of cuisines have been the existing biota, soils, fuel for cooking and climates, followed by new technologies, exploration and trade. These provide the context of the world's amazing variety of cuisines, but not the understanding of why cuisines developed as they have, in particular why China has the world's greatest cuisine.

Author(s): 
MacLennan, Robert
Zhang, Aizhen
Publication Title: 
Aging
Author(s): 
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.
Campisi, Judith
Sinclair, David A.
Publication Title: 
Meat Science

This review starts by introducing the history and underlying culture of meat production and consumption in Japan since early times, and the effects of social change on these parameters. Meat processing in Japan is described, and certain other related papers are also introduced. Automatic machines for meat cutting have been developed by the Japanese food industry and are currently being used throughout the world, particularly in Europe.

Author(s): 
Sakata, Ryoichi
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

At the beginning of the twentieth century Freud and Pavlov made complementary theoretical splits in their observational field. This splitting initiated a dialectical interaction that tended to polarize the Freudian mental world of insight and the psyche against the Pavlovian outer world of learning theories and the soma. The 1950s saw an exaggerated polarization between strict behaviorists and "classical" psychoanalysts. The linkage of ideas of therapeutic action with metapsychology also dates from Freud and is briefly illustrated.

Author(s): 
Whitehead, C. C.
Publication Title: 
ANS. Advances in nursing science

Modern historical research of women and nursing has largely neglected the role of religious groups, particularly in the American frontier. The image of women at the end of the 19th century was one of submission to male authority and confinement to the domestic sphere. However, in the pluralistic West, a variety of organized religious women built and administered hospitals, initiated professional nursing, and provided effective health care services.

Author(s): 
Marshall, E. S.
Wall, B. M.
Publication Title: 
Pflege

In 1919, Michael Fischer OSC was appointed to the German charity union "Zentrale des Deutschen Caritasverbandes" (DCV) in Freiburg. He assumed his duties as the acting manager and general secretary for the German catholic union of health institutions "Verband Katholischer Kranken- und Pflegeanstalten". For nearly twenty years, he was involved in expanding and strengthening this specialized organisation.

Author(s): 
Kolling, H.

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