Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha.
Bulletin of the Indian Institute of History of Medicine (Hyderabad)
Ayurveda is a science of life, therefore it is the science, by the knowledge of which life may be prolonged. It is human nature to aspire for longevity and this desire is found practically among all the peoples of the world. Accordingly if longevity is desired, there must be a system of rejuvenation for one who keeps on remaining young. Rasayana therapy has been described for this person in Ayurveda as a systematic and scientific medical discipline and great results were claimed by this therapy.
The Taylor-Schechter (T-S) collection at Cambridge University Library is the biggest of all Cairo Genizah collections in the world. The importance and the potential of research into the medical aspects of the Genizah documents were clear to researcher since the early 1960s. A few works have been published since, usually focusing on one subject, or even important single manuscripts.
The importance of the Genizah for the research of the medieval Mediterranean communities, supplying information on almost every aspect of life, is well known among historian. Less known is that pharmacy was the most popular of all branches of the healing art in the medieval Jewish community of Cairo, according to the Genizah manuscripts. Sources for study of medieval practical drugs are extremely rare since most records naturally vanish over the years, and only some medical books, which contained theoretical pharmacology, have survived to the present day.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To asses the scientific value of the practical medical fragments found in the Cairo Genizah (10th century), as a useful source for ethnopharmacological purposes (in exposing rare and usually inaccessible original medieval practical knowledge of medicinal substances to present-day researchers), and to reconstruct the practical drugs and their uses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodology distinguishing between theoretical (about 1500 fragments) and practical medical knowledge (about 230 fragments) was created and used.
Tibetan medicine is known as the knowledge of healing in the Four Tantras, the main medical text studied by Tibetan doctors. In the 8th century, King Trisong Deutsen (718-785 CE) invited eminent physicians from India, China, Persia, East Turkestan, Mongolia, and Nepal for the First International Medical Symposium in Samye, Tibet and ordered his personal physician Elder Yuthog Yonten Gonpo (708-833 CE), who lived 125 years, and participated in this conference to summarize. By combining all the information available and presented during this symposium, he compiled the Four Tantras.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tropical spices have long been utilized in traditional medicine and cuisine. New archaeological evidence highlights temporal changes in the nature and scale of the ancient spice trade and in the ancient usage of these plants. Furthermore, a study of their 'materiality' highlights that the impact of spices extends beyond their material properties. Here the botanical remains of spices recovered from archaeological excavations at a port active in the Roman and medieval Islamic spice trade are evaluated.
To elucidate the impact of diet on age-at-death determinations based on molar attrition a comparison was made between the established rate of attrition in three populations; a pre-mediaeval (British), a late mediaeval (Dutch) and a 17-18th century (Dutch) (western European). It appeared that the rate decreased dramatically during the overall time span and that this change was probably diet related and owing to the coarseness of foodstuffs.
In millennia past, and until recently, among hunter-gatherers and like populations, in all populations, in measure, down through the ages, the securing of sufficient food was life's primary purpose. Virtually all people were physically very active during early life and later in their everyday occupations.