HIV-1

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Infection with human immunodeficency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficency syndrome (AIDS) is a pandemic that has affected millions of people globally. Although major research and clinical initiatives are addressing prevention and cure strategies, issues of quality of life for survivors have received less attention. Massage therapy is proposed to have a positive effect on quality of life and may also have a positive effect on immune function through stress mediation.

Author(s): 
Hillier, Susan L.
Louw, Quinette
Morris, Linzette
Uwimana, Jeanine
Statham, Sue
Publication Title: 
Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin

Extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase. The extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Quercus pedunculata, Rumex cyprius, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 < or = 50 micrograms/ml. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol extract of the fruit of P.

Author(s): 
el-Mekkawy, S.
Meselhy, M. R.
Kusumoto, I. T.
Kadota, S.
Hattori, M.
Namba, T.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Nanomedicine

Platinum nanoparticle (Pt-np) species are superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics and also have an activity similar to that of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. To examine if this complex I-like activity functions in vivo, we studied the effects of Pt-nps on the lifespan of a mitochondrial complex I-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, nuo-1 (LB25) compared with wild-type N2. We synthesized a fusion protein of a cell-penetrating peptide, human immunodeficiency virus-1 TAT (48-60), C-terminally linked to a peptide with a high affinity to platinum (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ-DRTSTWR).

Author(s): 
Sakaue, Yuri
Kim, Juewon
Miyamoto, Yusei
Publication Title: 
PloS One

HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance.

Author(s): 
Desplats, Paula
Dumaop, Wilmar
Cronin, Peter
Gianella, Sara
Woods, Steven
Letendre, Scott
Smith, David
Masliah, Eliezer
Grant, Igor
Publication Title: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections

OBJECTIVES: Willingness to participate in HIV-1 vaccine trials and associated factors were investigated in a sample of 2670 Royal Thai Army conscripted recruits. METHODS: Self administered questionnaires were used. Data were collected during the final visit of a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-1 epidemiology. Cross sectional analysis of data from this visit was performed. RESULTS: 32% of the respondents reported they would "definitely" join an HIV-1 vaccine trial.

Author(s): 
Jenkins, R. A.
Torugsa, K.
Markowitz, L. E.
Mason, C. J.
Jamroentana, V.
Brown, A. E.
Nitayaphan, S.
Publication Title: 
AIDS and behavior

Focus group discussions were conducted to assess factors that might impact participation of subgroups in Chennai for future HIV vaccine trials. The participants were 112 men and women representing the following: (1) transport workers; (2) clients who attended a sexually transmitted disease clinic; (3) injection drug users; (4) men having sex with men; (5) women in sex work; and (6) monogamous married women. Participants expressed an intense interest in future HIV vaccine trials.

Author(s): 
Nyamathi, Adeline M.
Suhadev, Mohanarani
Swaminathan, Soumya
Fahey, John L.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

Adding to a traditional stress perspective, behavioral medicine has been focusing increasingly on investigating the potential impact of positive psychosocial factors on disease course in HIV. Dispositional optimism, active coping, and spirituality show the most evidence for predicting slower disease progression, although the data are not entirely consistent. Findings for the role of social support are mixed, although indications are that it may be particularly helpful at later stages of illness.

Author(s): 
Ironson, Gail
Hayward, H'Sien
Publication Title: 
Health Economics

RATIONALE: There are many interventions for HIV/AIDS that require that people know their status and hence require a HIV test. Testing that is driven by a desire to prevent the spread of the disease often has an indirect effect on others. These external effects need to be identified, quantified and included as part of the benefits and costs of testing. Pioneering analyses of HIV testing by Philipson and Posner have introduced the economic calculus of individual expected benefits and costs of activities into an understanding of the HIV epidemic.

Author(s): 
Brent, Robert J.
Publication Title: 
AIDS patient care and STDs

In 2010, the iPrEx study demonstrated efficacy of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men. Adherence to study product was critical for PrEP efficacy, and varied considerably, with FTC/TDF detection rates highest in the United States.

Author(s): 
Gilmore, Hailey J.
Liu, Albert
Koester, Kimberly Ann
Amico, K. Rivet
McMahan, Vanessa
Goicochea, Pedro
Vargas, Lorena
Lubensky, David
Buchbinder, Susan
Grant, Robert
Publication Title: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1-infected individuals prevents sexual transmission if viral load is suppressed. METHODS: Participants were HIV-1-infected partners randomized to early ART (CD4 350-550) in HPTN052 (n = 886, median follow-up = 2.1 years), a clinical trial of early ART to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples at 13 sites in 9 countries. Adherence was assessed through pill count (dichotomized at <95%) and through self-report items.

Author(s): 
Safren, Steven A.
Mayer, Kenneth H.
Ou, San-San
McCauley, Marybeth
Grinsztejn, Beatriz
Hosseinipour, Mina C.
Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran
Gamble, Theresa
Hoffman, Irving
Celentano, David
Chen, Ying Qing
Cohen, Myron S.
HPTN 052 Study Team

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