Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, major challenges remain in achieving access, retention, and adherence. Our inner-city HIV clinical practice in Baltimore has a diverse patient population with high rates of poverty, black race, and injection drug use (IDU), providing us the opportunity to compare health process and outcomes.
OBJECTIVES: Prompt HIV diagnosis and treatment are associated with increased longevity and reduced transmission. The aim of the study was to examine late diagnoses and to assess the quality of care following diagnosis. METHODS: National surveillance and cohort data were used to examine late HIV diagnoses and to assess the quality of care received in the 12 months following HIV diagnosis. RESULTS: In 2011, 79% (4910/6219) of persons (15 years and over) diagnosed with HIV infection had CD4 counts reported within 3 months; of these, 49% were diagnosed late (CD4 count < 350 cells/?L).
BACKGROUND: Patients with thalassemia major are largely transfusion dependent and are thus exposed to a variety of risks such as transmission of infectious diseases, iron overload and alloimmunization. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of human immune deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and red cell antibodies among multiple-transfused thalassemic patients in and around the national capital region.
The increased longevity afforded by combination antiretroviral therapy in developed countries has led to an increased concern regarding senescence-related diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Previous epidemiologic analyses have demonstrated an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as a significant burden of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected patients. We performed the St.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychosocial impact of lipodystrophy on the lifestyles of HIV positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 HIV positive patients on HAART at an outpatient sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV clinic in central London. Qualitative data from interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory to elicit key categories and subcategories.
Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: This article presents major concepts and research findings from the field of psychosomatic medicine that the authors believe should be taught to all medical students. METHOD: The authors asked senior scholars involved in psychosomatic medicine to summarize key findings in their respective fields.
OBJECTIVE: The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation. METHODS: We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+) T cell count above 250 cells/µl.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
The Human Genome Project, coupled with rapidly evolving high-throughput technologies, has opened the possibility of identifying heretofore unknown biological processes underlying human disease. Because of the opaque nature of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) neuropathogenesis, the utility of such methods has gained notice among NeuroAIDS researchers. Furthermore, the merging of genetics with other research areas has also allowed for application of relatively nascent fields, such as neuroimaging genomics, and pharmacogenetics, to the context of HAND.
HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance.
We define neurodevelopment as the dynamic inter-relationship between genetic, brain, cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes across the developmental lifespan. Significant and persistent disruption to this dynamic process through environmental and genetic risk can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders and disability. Research designed to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disorders in low- and middle-income countries, as well as globally, will benefit enormously from the ongoing advances in understanding their genetic and epigenetic causes, as modified by environment and culture.