Nine phenolic compounds, including two phenolic carboxylic acids, 1 and 2, seven hydrolyzable tannins, 3-9, eight triterpenoids, including four oleanane-type triterpene acids, 10-13, and four of their glucosides, 14-17, isolated from a MeOH extract of the gall of Terminalia chebula Retz.
Terminally differentiated neutrophils are short-lived but the key effector cells of the innate immune response, and have a prominent role in the pathogenesis and propagation of many inflammatory diseases. Delayed apoptosis, which is responsible for their extended longevity, is critically dependent on a balance of intracellular survival versus pro-apoptotic proteins. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor drugs such as R-roscovitine and DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) mediate neutrophil apoptosis.
The AU-rich elements (AREs) encoded within many mRNA 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) are targets for factors that control transcript longevity and translational efficiency. Hsp70, best known as a protein chaperone with well-defined peptide-refolding properties, is known to interact with ARE-like RNA substrates in vitro. Here, we show that cofactor-free preparations of Hsp70 form direct, high-affinity complexes with ARE substrates based on specific recognition of U-rich sequences by both the ATP- and peptide-binding domains.
Borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil has been used as a treatment for various degenerative diseases. Many useful properties of this oil are attributed to its high gamma linolenic acid content (GLA, 18:3 ?-6). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety and suitability of the use of borage seed oil, along with one of its active components, GLA, with respect to DNA integrity, and to establish possible in vivo toxic and in vitro cytotoxic effects.
A profound cytotoxic action of the antimalarial, artesunate (ART), was identified against 55 cancer cell lines of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50 values) for ART correlated significantly to the cell doubling times (P = 0.00132) and the portion of cells in the G0/G1 (P = 0.02244) or S cell cycle phases (P = 0.03567). We selected mRNA expression data of 465 genes obtained by microarray hybridization from the NCI data base.
Artemisinin and its derivatives are currently recommended as first-line antimalarials in regions where Plasmodium falciparum is resistant to traditional drugs. The cytotoxic activity of these endoperoxides toward rapidly dividing human carcinoma cells and cell lines has been reported, and it is hypothesized that activation of the endoperoxide bridge by an iron(II) species, to form C-centered radicals, is essential for cytotoxicity.
The manuscript describes the synthesis of 10-substituted dihydroartemisinin derivatives containing N-aryl phenylethenesulfonamide groups and their in vitro anti-tumor activities against the HT-29, MDA-MB-231, U87MG, H460, A549 and HL-60 cancer cell lines and the normal WI-38 cell line. Most tested compounds showed enhanced cytotoxic activities and good selectivity toward the MDA-MB-231, HT-29 and HL-60 cell lines, with IC50 values in the single-digit ?M range as compared with dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and all of them displayed less toxicity towards WI-38 cells.
Tiliacora racemosa and Semecarpus anacardium, the two plants frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in four human tumour cell lines: acute myeloblastic leukaemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukaemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). In cells grown in appropriate media the ethanol extract of T. racemosa root, the total alkaloids isolated from this organ and S. anacardium nut oil prepared according to the Ayurvedic principle were found to have cytotoxic activity.
OBJECTIVES: Gymnema montanum Hook, an Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant, is used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments. Here, we report anti-cancer effects and molecular mechanisms of ethanolic extract of G. montanum (GLEt) on human leukaemia HL-60 cells, compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of GLEt (10-50 μg/ml) and cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. Levels of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 were measured.
An important aspect of the risk of cancer is the involvement of the inflammatory response. Currently, antiinflammatory agents are used in chemopreventive strategies. For example, aspirin is recommended for the prevention of colon cancer as well as breast and other cancers. The inflammatory response involves the production of cytokines and proinflammatory oxidants such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and peroxynitrite (ONO2-) produced by neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. These oxidants react with phenolic tyrosine residues on proteins to form chloro- and nitrotyrosine.