The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
One of the most robust observations in the biology of aging is that caloric restriction (CR) extends life in a variety of species. Although CR results in a severalfold decrease in fat mass (FM), the role of fat on life extension was considered to be minimal. Two main reasons accounted for this belief. First, although increased FM is associated with changes in substrate oxidation and in glucose homeostasis, in part through the effects of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol, several studies have suggested that longevity is determined independent of FM.
The question of whether temporal equivalence can be established between test species and humans and be useful in the safety assessment of food additives has puzzled risk assessors throughout decades. The basic biological elements in any mammalian species, including humans, such as homeostasis, basal metabolism and body size/surface area, reproduction features, the timing of cellular proliferation, and aging and health as well as the relation between aging and the diet are essential in this discussion.
Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Carcinogenicity and aging are characterized by a set of complex endpoints, which appear as a series of molecular events. Many of these events can be modified by caloric intake. Since most of these processes determine an organism's ability to cope with various environmental stressors, it is not surprising that a relationship (in the presence of a constant nutrient density) exists between caloric intake and time-to-tumor and/or life span.
Hardly an aspect of aging is more important than an organism's ability to withstand stress or to resist both internally and externally imposed insults. We know that as organisms loose their ability to resist these insults, aged organisms suffer more than the young. Therefore, a prime strategy for an organism's survival has been the evolutionarily adapted defense systems that guard against insult. For better survivability, an organism's defense system must be maximized to its full effect through well-coordinated networks of diverse biologically responsive elements.
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is required for cellular function and skeletal mineralization. Serum Pi level is maintained within a narrow range through a complex interplay between intestinal absorption, exchange with intracellular and bone storage pools, and renal tubular reabsorption. The crucial regulated step in Pi homeostasis is the transport of Pi across the renal proximal tubule. Type II sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporter (NPT2) is the major molecule in the renal proximal tubule and is regulated by Pi, parathyroid hormone and by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.