Homocysteine

Publication Title: 
Maturitas

The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age.

Author(s): 
Hausman, Dorothy B.
Fischer, Joan G.
Johnson, Mary Ann
Publication Title: 
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition

A healthy cardiovascular system, with minimal arteriosclerosis, good endothelial function and well-compensated ventricular function has been observed at advanced ages, and linked to a healthy lifestyle. This has consisted of a plant-based diet, low in salt and fat, with monounsaturates as the principal fat. Other healthy lifestyle factors include regular physical activity (farming and traditional dance) and minimal tobacco use.

Author(s): 
Suzuki, M.
Wilcox, B. J.
Wilcox, C. D.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism

BACKGROUND: A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. OBJECTIVE: The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated.

Author(s): 
Majchrzak, D.
Singer, I.
M‰nner, M.
Rust, P.
Genser, D.
Wagner, K.-H.
Elmadfa, I.
Publication Title: 
Maturitas

The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age.

Author(s): 
Hausman, Dorothy B.
Fischer, Joan G.
Johnson, Mary Ann
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)

Higher plasma homocysteine concentrations can influence genomic DNA methylation in peripheral blood cells. In the present controlled study we observed a significant increase (10%) of genomic DNA methylation in patients with alcoholism (t = -3.16, df = 158, p = 0.002) which was significantly associated with their elevated homocysteine levels (multiple linear regression, p < 0.001).

Author(s): 
Bˆnsch, D.
Lenz, B.
Reulbach, U.
Kornhuber, J.
Bleich, S.
Publication Title: 
Neuroreport

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the DNA methylation pattern within the alpha synuclein promoter region is altered in intoxicated and early abstinence patients with alcoholism undergoing alcohol withdrawal. We observed a significant increase of the alpha synuclein promoter DNA methylation in patients with alcoholism which was significantly associated with their elevated homocysteine levels. No significant differences of the promoter DNA methylation within a control gene (presenilin-1) in alcoholics and controls were found.

Author(s): 
Bˆnsch, Dominikus
Lenz, Bernd
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)

DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are involved within the epigenetic control of DNA methylation processes. Recently, it has been shown that the genomic DNA methylation in patients with alcoholism is increased. In the present controlled study we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expression of DNMT-3a and DNMT-3b when comparing alcoholic patients (n = 59) with healthy controls (n = 66): DNMT-3a (t = -2.38, p = 0.019), DNMT-3b (t = -2.65, p = 0.008). No significant differences were seen for DNMT-1 and Mbd-2 (Methyl-CpG-Binding-Domain protein 2) expression.

Author(s): 
Bˆnsch, D.
Lenz, B.
Fiszer, R.
Frieling, H.
Kornhuber, J.
Bleich, S.
Publication Title: 
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations can influence genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation in peripheral blood cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in patients with alcohol dependence, who show chronically elevated homocysteine levels, whether DNA methylation pattern within the HERP (homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein) promoter region and expression of HERP mRNA is altered. METHODS: The HERP mRNA expression level was measured by quantitative PCR in the blood of 66 male alcoholic patients and 55 nondrinking healthy controls.

Author(s): 
Bleich, Stefan
Lenz, Bernd
Ziegenbein, Marc
Beutler, Sonja
Frieling, Helge
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bˆnsch, Dominikus
Publication Title: 
Chronobiology International

The regulation of genetic expression is tightly controlled and well balanced in the organism by different epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. DNA methylation occurring after embryogenesis is seen mainly as an irreversible event. Even small changes in genomic DNA methylation might be of biological relevance, and several factors influencing DNA methylation have been identified so far, one being homocysteine.

Author(s): 
Bˆnsch, Dominikus
Hothorn, Torsten
Krieglstein, Christian
Koch, Marlene
Nehmer, Christina
Lenz, Bernd
Reulbach, Udo
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan
Publication Title: 
Current Drug Abuse Reviews

Addiction research focusing on homocysteine metabolism and its association with aspects of alcohol dependence has revealed important findings. Recent literature on this topic has been taken into account for the review provided. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the homocysteine metabolism. Plasma homocysteine levels are influenced by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) MTHFR C677T. Besides genetic factors, environmental factors have an impact on homocysteine plasma levels too.

Author(s): 
Lutz, Ulrich C.

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