Host-Parasite Interactions

Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

INTRODUCTION: This is a systematic review of the animal models used in studies of high dilutions. The objectives are to analyze methodological quality of papers and reported results, and to highlight key conceptual aspects of high dilution to suggest clues concerning putative mechanisms of action. METHODS: Papers for inclusion were identified systematically, from the Pubmed-Medline database, using 'Homeopathy' and 'Animal' as keywords.

Author(s): 
Bonamin, Leoni Villano
Endler, Peter Christian
Publication Title: 
Phytopathology

The Ma gene from Myrobalan plum is a TNL gene that confers a high-level resistance to all root-knot nematodes of major economic importance, including Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. enterolobii. The nematode behavior in the roots and the corresponding histological mechanisms of the Ma resistance to M.

Author(s): 
Khallouk, Samira
Voisin, Roger
Van Ghelder, Cyril
Engler, Gilbert
Amiri, Saïd
Esmenjaud, Daniel
Publication Title: 
Journal of Insect Science (Online)

The braconid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a major solitary, larval endoparasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The impact of dietary protein was investigated in the laboratory by comparing performance of C. plutellae on honey, which is commonly used to rear the parasitoid, to that on a novel diet made of honey and protein-rich beebread.

Author(s): 
Soyelu, Olalekan J.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Clinical investigation of malaria is hampered by the lack of a method for estimating the number of parasites that are sequestered in the tissues, for it is these parasites that are thought to be crucial to the pathogenesis of life-threatening complications such as cerebral malaria. We present a method of estimating this hidden population by using clinical observations of peripheral parasitemia combined with an age-structured mathematical model of the parasite erythrocyte cycle.

Author(s): 
Gravenor, M. B.
van Hensbroek, M. B.
Kwiatkowski, D.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has emerged in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by prolonged in vivo parasite clearance times (PCTs) following artesunate treatment. The biological basis is unclear. The hypothesis that delayed parasite clearance results from a stage-specific reduction in artemisinin sensitivity of the circulating young asexual parasite ring stages was examined. A mathematical model was developed, describing the intrahost parasite stage-specific pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships.

Author(s): 
Saralamba, Sompob
Pan-Ngum, Wirichada
Maude, Richard J.
Lee, Sue J.
Tarning, Joel
Lindegardh, Niklas
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Nosten, François
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Socheat, Duong
White, Nicholas J.
Dondorp, Arjen M.
White, Lisa J.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Combination regimens that include artemisinin derivatives are recommended as first line antimalarials in most countries where malaria is endemic. However, the mechanism of action of artemisinin is not fully understood and the usefulness of this drug class is threatened by reports of decreased parasite sensitivity. We treated Plasmodium falciparum for periods of a few hours to mimic clinical exposure to the short half-life artemisinins. We found that drug treatment retards parasite growth and inhibits uptake of hemoglobin, even at sublethal concentrations.

Author(s): 
Klonis, Nectarios
Crespo-Ortiz, Maria P.
Bottova, Iveta
Abu-Bakar, Nurhidanatasha
Kenny, Shannon
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Tilley, Leann
Publication Title: 
Ultrastructural Pathology

Ultrastructural changes to P. falciparum-infected red blood cells were examined in vitro after treatment with antimalarial drugs. Artesunate had the most rapid parasitocidal effect. All three drugs caused structural changes within the parasite, including dilatation of the parasitophorus vacuole membrane, depletion of ribosomes, mitochondrial swelling, and decreased formation of hemozoin crystals. The structure of surface knobs and Maurer's clefts were similar to controls but reduced in number. Only depletion of free ribosomes correlated with antimalarial drug exposure.

Author(s): 
Sachanonta, Navakanit
Chotivanich, Kesinee
Chaisri, Urai
Turner, Gareth D. H.
Ferguson, David J. P.
Day, Nicholas P. J.
Pongponratn, Emsri
Publication Title: 
Parasite (Paris, France)

Over the past six decades, the drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum has become an issue of utmost concern. Despite the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years in reducing the mortality rate to about 30% with the scaling-up of vector control, introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies and other malaria control strategies, the confirmation of artemisinin resistance on the Cambodia-Thailand border threatened all the previous success.

Author(s): 
Sinha, Shweta
Medhi, Bikash
Sehgal, Rakesh
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Obligate intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania specifically target host phagocytes for survival and replication. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ), a member of the class I PI3Ks that is highly expressed by leukocytes, controls cell migration by initiating actin polymerization and cytoskeletal reorganization, which are processes also critical for phagocytosis. In this study, we demonstrate that class IB PI3K, PI3Kγ, plays a critical role in pathogenesis of chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana.

Author(s): 
Cummings, Hannah E.
Barbi, Joseph
Reville, Patrick
Oghumu, Steve
Zorko, Nicholas
Sarkar, Anasuya
Keiser, Tracy L.
Lu, Bao
Rückle, Thomas
Varikuti, Sanjay
Lezama-Davila, Claudio
Wewers, Mark D.
Whitacre, Caroline
Radzioch, Danuta
Rommel, Christian
Seveau, Stéphanie
Satoskar, Abhay R.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The human microbiome plays a key role in human health and is associated with numerous diseases. Metagenomic-based studies are now generating valuable information about the composition of the microbiome in health and in disease, demonstrating nonneutral assembly processes and complex co-occurrence patterns. However, the underlying ecological forces that structure the microbiome are still unclear.

Author(s): 
Levy, Roie
Borenstein, Elhanan

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