Host-Pathogen Interactions

Publication Title: 
Toxins

Tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2) are the two well-characterized anthrax toxin receptors, each containing a von Willebrand factor A (vWA) domain responsible for anthrax protective antigen (PA) binding. Recently, a cell-based analysis was used to implicate another vWA domain-containing protein, integrin ?1 as a third anthrax toxin receptor. To explore whether proteins other than TEM8 and CMG2 function as anthrax toxin receptors in vivo, we challenged mice lacking TEM8 and/or CMG2.

Author(s): 
Liu, Shihui
Zhang, Yi
Hoover, Benjamin
Leppla, Stephen H.
Publication Title: 
BMC cancer

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. DISCUSSION: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome.

Author(s): 
Cegolon, Luca
Salata, Cristiano
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Vineis, Paolo
Pal˘, Giorgio
Mastrangelo, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Microbiology

Aging affects all organisms, from unicellular yeasts to multicellular humans. Studies in model organisms demonstrate that the pathways that mediate the two forms of aging, replicative and chronological, are highly conserved. Most studies are focused on the effect of aging on an individual cell rather than a whole population. Complex longevity regulation, however, makes aging a highly adaptive trait that is subject to natural selection.

Author(s): 
Bouklas, Tejas
Fries, Bettina C.
Publication Title: 
Nature Chemical Biology

Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models.

Author(s): 
Lee, Won-Jae
Hase, Koji
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ling
Zhou, Chun
He, Zhen
Wang, Zheng-Guang
Wang, Jia-Lin
Wang, Yu-Feng
Publication Title: 
BMC cancer

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a significant and growing problem worldwide. While this increase may, in part, be attributed to increasing longevity, improved case notifications and risk-enhancing lifestyle (such as smoking, diet and obesity), hygiene-related factors resulting in immuno-regulatory failure may also play a major role and call for a revision of vaccination strategies to protect against a range of cancers in addition to infections. DISCUSSION: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a significant component of a wider family of retroelements that constitutes part of the human genome.

Author(s): 
Cegolon, Luca
Salata, Cristiano
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Vineis, Paolo
Pal˘, Giorgio
Mastrangelo, Giuseppe
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Genetics

The digestive tract plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Far from being a passive tube, it provides the first line of defense against pathogens and maintains energy homeostasis by exchanging neuronal and endocrine signals with other organs. Historically neglected, the gut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently come to the forefront of Drosophila research.

Author(s): 
Lemaitre, Bruno
Miguel-Aliaga, Irene
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Genetics

The molecular genetic analysis of longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans has yielded fundamental insights into evolutionarily conserved pathways and processes governing the physiology of aging. Recent studies suggest that interactions between C. elegans and its microbial environment may influence the aging and longevity of this simple host organism.

Author(s): 
Kim, Dennis H.
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

The tight association of the human body with trillions of colonizing microbes that we observe today is the result of a long evolutionary history. Only very recently have we started to understand how this symbiosis also affects brain function and behavior. In this hypothesis and theory article, we propose how host-microbe associations potentially influenced mammalian brain evolution and development.

Author(s): 
Stilling, Roman M.
Bordenstein, Seth R.
Dinan, Timothy G.
Cryan, John F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurovirology

Research on the microbiome and its interaction with various host organs, including the brain, is increasingly gaining momentum. With more evidence establishing a comprehensive microbiota-gut-brain axis, questions have been raised as to the extent to which microbes influence brain physiology and behaviour. In parallel, there is a growing literature showing active behavioural manipulation in favour of the microbe for certain parasites. However, it seems unclear where the hidden majority of microbes are localised on the parasitism-mutualism spectrum.

Author(s): 
Stilling, Roman M.
Dinan, Timothy G.
Cryan, John F.

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