Human Development

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council

The grandmother hypothesis (GH) of Hawkes et al. ([1998]: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 1336-1339) finds that selection for lower adult mortality and greater longevity allow for the evolution of prolonged growth in human beings. In contrast, other researchers propose that the evolution of the human childhood and adolescent stages of life history prolonged the growth period and allowed for greater biological resilience and longevity compared with apes. In this article, the GH model is reanalyzed using new values for some of its key variables.

Author(s): 
Bogin, Barry
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

At the beginning of the twentieth century Freud and Pavlov made complementary theoretical splits in their observational field. This splitting initiated a dialectical interaction that tended to polarize the Freudian mental world of insight and the psyche against the Pavlovian outer world of learning theories and the soma. The 1950s saw an exaggerated polarization between strict behaviorists and "classical" psychoanalysts. The linkage of ideas of therapeutic action with metapsychology also dates from Freud and is briefly illustrated.

Author(s): 
Whitehead, C. C.
Publication Title: 
Twin Research: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies

Non-linear epigenetic processes are a potential underlying source of phenotypic differences in development. Simulation studies of twin pairs using simple non-linear development models characterised by chaotic or near-chaotic behavior are presented. The effect of chaotic processes on correlations is to lower them from their initial values, but high initial correlations are affected much less by chaotic and near-chaotic processes than intermediate correlations.

Author(s): 
Eaves, L. J.
Kirk, K. M.
Martin, N. G.
Russell, R. J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine

Finely tuning levels of the key neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) during early life is essential for brain development and setting pathways for health and disorder across the early life span. Given the central role of 5-HT in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity, and risk for psychiatric disorders, alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health in childhood and adolescence.

Author(s): 
Oberlander, Tim F.
Publication Title: 
Advances in Child Development and Behavior

Several large-scale searches for genes that influence complex human traits, such as intelligence and personality, in the normal range of variation have failed to identify even one gene that makes a significant difference. All previously published claims for genetic influences of this kind now appear to have been false positives. For more serious psychiatric and medical disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, several genes have been found where a rare mutation contributes to abnormal behavior, but in many instances they are de novo mutations not obtained from a parent.

Author(s): 
Wahlsten, Douglas
Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

DNA methylation (DNAm) is important in brain development and is potentially important in schizophrenia. We characterized DNAm in prefrontal cortex from 335 non-psychiatric controls across the lifespan and 191 patients with schizophrenia and identified widespread changes in the transition from prenatal to postnatal life. These DNAm changes manifest in the transcriptome, correlate strongly with a shifting cellular landscape and overlap regions of genetic risk for schizophrenia.

Author(s): 
Jaffe, Andrew E.
Gao, Yuan
Deep-Soboslay, Amy
Tao, Ran
Hyde, Thomas M.
Weinberger, Daniel R.
Kleinman, Joel E.
Publication Title: 
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore Di Sanita

First of all a definition is given of "poverty" and "precaution". A short, by no means comprehensive, presentation of some especially relevant recent publications on both topics is included, with a view to offering also readers who are not familiar with these issues a broad overview of the specialised literature available. This is followed by a description of the solidarity concept, following various philosophical, cultural and religious trends, analysing their relationship with precaution.

Author(s): 
Petrini, Carlo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Communication Disorders

Two tapes of six emotions (anger, fear, sadness, contentment, happiness, love) recorded by child and adult speakers were played to child and adult listeners to determine whether (a) each group of listeners responds more accurately to positive or negative emotions; (b) each group of speakers communicates positive or negative emotions more accurately; (c-g) there were specific ways in which children adn adults differ in accuracy of perceiving and communicating the six emotions studied. Two hundred and ten white, male, middle-class Ss were used.

Author(s): 
Fenster, C. A.
Blake, L. K.
Goldstein, A. M.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Psychoanalysis

The various factors which seem to be important in the creative child with extraordinary potential include: A good biologic endowment, often with high intelligence and a correlation between special sensory sensitivities and other physical requirements to implement the special interest. There is also sometimes the capacity to utilize or else compensate for deficit. The fostering of interests by a parent or interested adult. Specific kinds of ongoing encouragement. Sometimes there is self-selection of interest by the child. The child must feel valued and loved.

Author(s): 
Shainess, N.
Publication Title: 
Family Process

Received wisdom suggests that boundaries are, or should be, important in intimate relationships. In this essay, we focus primarily upon the beliefs and phenomenology relating to a variety of boundaries, and provide a discussion of some conceptual issues, in order to understand better the development, facilitation, and maintenance of, as well as restraints upon, intimacy. Although we attend mainly to dyadic relationships, we believe that our observations and suggestions have application to larger groups.

Author(s): 
Ryder, R. G.
Bartle, S.

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