Human Experimentation

Publication Title: 
IRB
Author(s): 
Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal

Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue.

Author(s): 
Campbell, Courtney S.
Publication Title: 
Hospital Progress

The nature of the physician-patient relationship underlies the professional's obligation to respect each person. Religion moves those involved in caring for the sick beyond professionalism to a profound sense of common humanity under the Father, of healing as a work of God, and of love as the primary bond with patients.

Author(s): 
Thomasma, D. C.
Publication Title: 
Bioethics

[I]nterest in animals as a source of organs and tissues for human beings remains strong. New developments in immunosuppression technology promise to lower the technical barriers to a routine use of nonhumans as organ donors, and the image of colonies of animals kept at the ready for supplying the growing human need for new organs seems a much more plausible scenario now than it did when broached by transplantation specialists in the Sixties. As Arthur Caplan has powerfully argued, the prospects that other sources of organs may resolve the supply problem are grim....

Author(s): 
Nelson, James Lindemann
Publication Title: 
Medical Care

Voluntary informed consent is a hard problem--one that inheres in the domain of research. The standard definition requires four criteria for consent to be morally valid: disclosure, understanding, voluntariness, and competence. These standards apply across the continuum of activities that comprise research. This paper concentrates on consent for the desperately sick, for whom enrollment in a research trial represents the last best hope of rescue. The literature indicates that many of these subjects enroll in research on the basis of feelings of hope or trust.

Author(s): 
Bosk, Charles L.
Publication Title: 
Medical Care

Voluntary informed consent is a hard problem--one that inheres in the domain of research. The standard definition requires four criteria for consent to be morally valid: disclosure, understanding, voluntariness, and competence. These standards apply across the continuum of activities that comprise research. This paper concentrates on consent for the desperately sick, for whom enrollment in a research trial represents the last best hope of rescue. The literature indicates that many of these subjects enroll in research on the basis of feelings of hope or trust.

Author(s): 
Bosk, Charles L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Nursing Scholarship: An Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing

PURPOSE: To describe issues and dilemmas related to nonparticipation, attrition, and needs for assistance in research with vulnerable home hospice participants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis, with descriptive statistics of the frequency of issues and dilemmas that occurred in a research study with a vulnerable population.

Author(s): 
Dobratz, Marjorie C.
Publication Title: 
Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica: Organo Ufficiale Della Societa Italiana Di Otorinolaringologia E Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale

The principle of informed consent, aimed at the lawfulness of health assistance, tends to reflect the concept of autonomy and of decisional autodetermination of the person requiring and requesting medical and/or surgical interventions. This legal formula, over the last few years, has gained not only considerable space but also importance in the doctrinal elaboration and approaches, as well as juridical interpretations, thereby influencing the everyday activities of the medical profession.

Author(s): 
Mallardi, V.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

A series of studies have reported on the salubrious effects of oxytocin nasal spray on social cognition and behavior in humans, across physiology (e.g., eye gaze, heart rate variability), social cognition (e.g., attention, memory, and appraisal), and behavior (e.g., trust, generosity). Findings suggest the potential of oxytocin nasal spray as a treatment for various psychopathologies, including autism and schizophrenia. There are, however, increasing reports of variability of response to oxytocin nasal spray between experiments and individuals.

Author(s): 
Guastella, Adam J.
Hickie, Ian B.
McGuinness, Margaret M.
Otis, Melissa
Woods, Elizabeth A.
Disinger, Hannah M.
Chan, Hak-Kim
Chen, Timothy F.
Banati, Richard B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Author(s): 
Battin, Margaret P.

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