Why aren't more women in science?: Top researchers debate the evidence
After providing an outline of the contents of this book, the chapter considers recent history relevant to the debate on women in science. It discusses the evidence-based grounds for a biologically based argument in a number of the essays in this volume. The chapter describes the need for this volume. The essays in this volume show that the pattern of sex differences is much more nuanced than their depiction in the popular media (e.g., male=right brain; female=left brain).
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement
Performed a content analysis on 1,733 TV commercials shown on 3 Canadian TV networks during an 8-wk period in the spring of 1983. Data were coded in terms of voice-overs, central characters, product type, locale, and the appearance of elderly and visible minority characters. Results indicate that men accounted for over 88% of voice-overs. For those commercials having an identifiable central character, 35% were female. Of these, 54% were supported by a male voice-over.
Three different samples of dream reports from Japanese women were analyzed to determine their male/female percentage. A study in the early 1980s found far fewer males in the dreams of Japanese women than is the case for women in other societies. The previous finding was not replicated, and both studies are discussed in terms of the role of women in Japanese society then and now.
The number of women earning advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has increased, yet women remain underrepresented at all ranks of the academic hierarchy in these fields. To help explain this pattern, we explored mechanisms in the recruitment and hiring process at the level of the department that hinder or promote the hiring of women into tenure-track positions.
Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology
This letter explores women’s representation within evolutionary-focused academic publications to support the need for such “radical” approaches as feminist evolutionary psychology. Data regarding authorship of journal and conference papers within evolutionary psychology show evidence of a strong male bias in the number of male authors and an even stronger bias with respect to the number of first authors.
Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training
Presents a case study of a college sophomore whose father had died when she was aged 4 yrs and whose mother had died when she was aged 17 yrs. Bulimic symptoms were treated with a paradoxical symptom prescription, substitution of mutually exclusive compulsive behaviors in times of stress (e.g., listen to music on headphones), and a positive ritual (wrote down all foods before bingeing began). Nonbulimic issues (e.g., sense of being alone, identity confusion) were discussed in 12 therapy sessions during a 6-mo period. At a 6-mo followup, S had not engaged in the bulimic cycle.
Robert Seidenberg's (see record 2007-10580-001) review of Mary Lou Randour's (see record 2006-05457-063) Women's psyche, women's spirit is critiqued and corrected from the perspective of a feminist theologian. The contrast between the psychological and religious approaches is noted with particular attention to the importance of feminist spirituality for social change and the substantive contribution of feminist analysis like Randour's for that task.
In a multiethnic sample of 53 women with HIV/AIDS, nearly 40% reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptomatology and anxiety. Compared to a nonpatient norm, distress levels were higher among the Latina, African-American, and White Ss who made up the HIV sample. Prayer and rediscovery of self were their most frequent coping responses, suggesting that clinicians working with HIV/AIDS not overlook the importance of spiritual faith and practices in adapting to HIV infection.
This study explores the relationship of the accumulative effect of gendered racism, the discrimination felt by African American women, on psychological distress. The study also explores whether coping serves as a mediating variable between gendered racism and psychological distress. Over 300 African American women participated in the study and were administered the Symptoms Checklist 90, a revised version of the Schedule of Sexist Events, and the Africultural Coping Styles Inventory.