Humans

Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the benefits and risks of starting anti-epileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of monotherapy in newly diagnosed partial epilepsy, and in newly diagnosed generalised epilepsy (tonic clonic type)?

Author(s): 
Marson, Anthony G.
Maguire, Melissa
Ramaratnam, Sridharan
Publication Title: 
European Spine Journal: Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society

Healthcare costs for low back pain (LBP) are increasing rapidly. Hence, it is important to provide treatments that are effective and cost-effective. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of guideline-endorsed treatments for LBP. We searched nine clinical and economic electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and included studies for eligible studies.

Author(s): 
Lin, Chung-Wei Christine
Haas, Marion
Maher, Chris G.
Machado, Luciana A. C.
van Tulder, Maurits W.
Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years.

Author(s): 
Hill, D. Ashley
Crider, Mark
Hill, Susan R.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process.

Author(s): 
Albrecht, Tara A.
Taylor, Ann Gill
Publication Title: 
Klinische Padiatrie

Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a frequent side-effect of drugs that are used in the treatment of cancer. Affected individuals can suffer from motor, sensory or autonomy nerve damage. Further medication is used for the treatment of CIPN which can cause further side-effects. Patients should be offered physical therapy treatment to relieve the symptoms. Objective: The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature investigating physical therapy in CIPN in pediatric oncology.

Author(s): 
Jung, M.
Rein, N.
Fuchs, B.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity.

Author(s): 
Geneen, Louise J.
Moore, R. Andrew
Clarke, Clare
Martin, Denis
Colvin, Lesley A.
Smith, Blair H.
Publication Title: 
Medical Care

BACKGROUND: Meditation, imagery, acupuncture, and yoga are the most frequently offered mind and body practices in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Yet, the research on mind and body practices has been critiqued as being too limited in evidence and scope to inform clinical treatment. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic scoping review of mind and body practices used with veterans or active duty military personnel to identify gaps in the literature and make recommendations for future primary research.

Author(s): 
Elwy, A. Rani
Johnston, Jennifer M.
Bormann, Jill E.
Hull, Amanda
Taylor, Stephanie L.
Publication Title: 
Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer

PURPOSE: Reviews of yoga research that distinguish results of trials conducted during (versus after) cancer treatment are needed to guide future research and clinical practice. We therefore conducted a review of non-randomized studies and randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions for children and adults undergoing treatment for any cancer type. METHODS: Studies were identified via research databases and reference lists.

Author(s): 
Danhauer, Suzanne C.
Addington, Elizabeth L.
Sohl, Stephanie J.
Chaoul, Alejandro
Cohen, Lorenzo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) partnered to produce evidence-based clinical guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders. A revision of these guidelines was undertaken by CANMAT in 2008-2009 to reflect advances in the field. There is widespread interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The CANMAT guidelines are based on a question-answer format to enhance accessibility to clinicians.

Author(s): 
Ravindran, Arun V.
Lam, Raymond W.
Filteau, Marie J.
Lespérance, François
Kennedy, Sidney H.
Parikh, Sagar V.
Patten, Scott B.
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT)
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: Depressed and anxious patients often combine complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies with conventional pharmacotherapy to self-treat symptoms. The benefits and risks of such combination strategies have not been fully evaluated. This paper evaluates the risk-benefit profile of CAM augmentation to antidepressants in affective conditions. METHODS: PubMed was searched for all available clinical reports published in English up to December 2012. Data were evaluated based on graded levels of evidence for efficacy and safety.

Author(s): 
Ravindran, Arun V.
da Silva, Tricia L.

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