Hunger

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Caloric restriction (CR) is the only experimental nongenetic paradigm known to increase lifespan. It has broad applicability and extends the life of most species through a retardation of aging. There is considerable interest in the use of CR in humans, and animal studies can potentially tell us about the impacts. In this article we highlight some of the things that animal studies can tell us about CR in humans. Rodent studies indicate that the benefits of CR on lifespan extension are related to the extent of restriction.

Author(s): 
Speakman, John R.
Hambly, Catherine
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10-40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important faculties like cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations.

Author(s): 
Minor, Robin K.
Chang, Joy W.
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Advances in Food Research
Author(s): 
Lepkovsky, S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: Prolonged dietary restriction increases the life span in rodents. Some evidence suggests that alternate-day fasting may also prolong the life span. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine whether alternate-day fasting is a feasible method of dietary restriction in nonobese humans and whether it improves known biomarkers of longevity. DESIGN: Nonobese subjects (8 men and 8 women) fasted every other day for 22 d.

Author(s): 
Heilbronn, Leonie K.
Smith, Steven R.
Martin, Corby K.
Anton, Stephen D.
Ravussin, Eric
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Caloric restriction (CR) is the only experimental nongenetic paradigm known to increase lifespan. It has broad applicability and extends the life of most species through a retardation of aging. There is considerable interest in the use of CR in humans, and animal studies can potentially tell us about the impacts. In this article we highlight some of the things that animal studies can tell us about CR in humans. Rodent studies indicate that the benefits of CR on lifespan extension are related to the extent of restriction.

Author(s): 
Speakman, John R.
Hambly, Catherine
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

A growing body of research on caloric restriction (CR) in many species of laboratory animals suggests that underfeeding leads to better health and longevity in the calorically-restricted animal (e.g., see [[34]. J.P. Pinel, S. Assanand and D.R. Lehman, (2000). Hunger, eating and ill health. Am Psychol, 55, 1105-1116.], for a review). Although some objections have been raised by scientists concerned about negative psychological and behavioral sequelae of such restriction, advocates of CR continue to urge people to adopt sharply reduced eating regimes in order to increase their longevity.

Author(s): 
Polivy, Janet
Herman, C. Peter
Coelho, Jennifer S.
Publication Title: 
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology

Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10-40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important faculties like cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations.

Author(s): 
Minor, Robin K.
Chang, Joy W.
de Cabo, Rafael
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Many animal and human studies show counterintuitive effects of environmental influences on energy balance and life span. Relatively low social and/or economic status seems to be associated with and produce greater adiposity, and reduced provision (e.g., caloric restriction) of food produces greater longevity. We suggest that a unifying factor may be perceptions of the environment as "energetically insecure" and inhospitable to reproduction, which may in turn provoke adiposity-increasing and longevity-extending mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Kaiser, Kathryn A.
Smith, Daniel L.
Allison, David B.
Publication Title: 
Appetite

Non-human animal studies demonstrate relationships between stress and selective intake of palatable food. In humans, exposure to laboratory stressors and self-reported stress are associated with greater food intake. Large studies have yet to examine chronic stress exposure and eating behavior. The current study assessed the relationship between stress (perceived and chronic), drive to eat, and reported food frequency intake (nutritious food vs. palatable non-nutritious food) in women ranging from normal weight to obese (N=457).

Author(s): 
Groesz, Lisa M.
McCoy, Shannon
Carl, Jenna
Saslow, Laura
Stewart, Judith
Adler, Nancy
Laraia, Barbara
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Appetite

Food insecurity is linked to higher weight gain in pregnancy, as is dietary restraint. We hypothesized that pregnant women exposed to marginal food insecurity, and who reported dietary restraint before pregnancy, will paradoxically show the greatest weight gain. Weight outcomes were defined as total kilograms, observed-to-recommended weight gain ratio, and categorized as adequate, inadequate or excessive weight gain based on 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A likelihood ratio test assessed the interaction between marginal food insecurity and dietary restraint and found significant.

Author(s): 
Laraia, Barbara
Epel, Elissa
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

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