Liver X receptors function as central transcriptional regulators for lipid homeostasis, for which agonists have been developed as potential drugs for treatment of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. Because dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been implicated in sex hormone-dependent cancers, we investigated the effect of liver X receptor agonists on prostate and breast cancer cell proliferation.
The oxygen status of skin is a controversial topic. Skin is radiosensitive, suggesting it is well-oxygenated. However, it can be further sensitized with nitroimidazole drugs, implying that it is partially hypoxic. Skin oxygen levels are difficult to measure with either electrodes or the hypoxia-monitoring agent (3)H-misonidazole. For the latter, binding has previously been reported to be high in murine skin, but this could be attributed to either non-oxygen-dependent variations in nitroreductase activity, drug metabolism, and/or actual oxygen gradients.
Androgen-dependent human LNCaP 104-S tumor xenografts progressed to androgen-independent relapsed tumors (104-Rrel) in athymic mice after castration. The growth of 104-Rrel tumors was suppressed by testosterone. However, 104-Rrel tumors adapted to androgen and regrew as androgen-stimulated 104-Radp tumors. Androgen receptor expression in tumors and serum prostate-specific antigen increased during progression from 104-S to 104-Rrel but decreased during transition from 104-Rrel to 104-Radp. Expression of genes related to liver X receptor (LXR) signaling changed during progression.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
T0901317 is a potent non-steroidal synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. T0901317 blocked androgenic stimulation of the proliferation of androgen-dependent LNCaP 104-S cells and androgenic suppression of the proliferation of androgen-independent LNCaP 104-R2 cells, inhibited the transcriptional activation of an androgen-dependent reporter gene by androgen, and suppressed gene and protein expression of prostate specific antigen (PSA), a target gene of androgen receptor (AR) without affecting gene and protein expression of AR.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
PURPOSE: EF5, a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker, was used to study the presence, levels, and prognostic significance of hypoxia in primary head and neck squamous cell tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-two patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, or larynx with at least 2 years of clinical follow-up were included in this study. Quantitative analyses of EF5 immunofluorescence was carried out, and these data were compared with patient outcome. RESULTS: EF5 immunostaining showed substantial intra- and intertumoral hypoxic heterogeneity.
Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) has been reported to reduce atherosclerosis in mouse models. However, this can be associated with enhanced liver de novo lipogenesis and elevation of plasma triglyceride-rich VLDL, which may limit its clinical use. In this study, we administered orally the LXR agonist T0901317 to male LDLR-/- mice fed a Western diet. This induced a persistent enhanced hypertriglyceridemia by largely increasing plasma triglyceride-rich VLDL.
AIMS: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a critical role in cell growth and inflammation during the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Several members of nuclear receptor superfamily, including liver X receptors (LXRalpha and LXRbeta), have been shown to suppress inflammatory responses, but little is known about their effects in cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated LXR expression patterns in pressure overload-induced hypertrophic hearts and the hypertrophic growth of the LXRalpha-deficient hearts from mice (C57/B6) in response to pressure overload.