Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of early childhood death worldwide and no therapy is available today. Many drugs, especially histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), increase SMN levels. As all HDACi tested so far only mildly ameliorate the SMA phenotype or are unsuitable for use in humans, there is still need to identify more potent drugs. Here, we assessed the therapeutic power of the pan-HDACi JNJ-26481585 for SMA, which is currently used in various clinical cancer trials.
A number of neurological diseases are caused by mutations of RNA metabolism-related genes. A complicating issue is that whether under- or overfunction of such genes is responsible for the phenotype. Polyglutamine tract binding protein-1, a causative gene for X-linked mental retardation, is also involved in RNA metabolism, and both mutation and duplication of the gene were reported in human patients. In this study, we first report a novel phenotype of dPQBP1 (drosophila homolog of Polyglutamine tract binding protein-1)-mutant flies, lifespan shortening.
We tested the effects of a Class I histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAcI), sodium butyrate (NaBu), on the longevity of normal- and long-lived strains of Drosophila melanogaster. This HDAcI has mixed effects in the normal-lived Ra strain as it decreases mortality rates and increases longevity when administered in the transition or senescent spans, but decreases longevity when administered over the health span only or over the entire adult lifespan. Mostly deleterious effects are noted when administered by either method to the long-lived La strain.
Reln mRNA and protein levels are reduced by approximately 50% in various cortical structures of post-mortem brain from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar illness with psychosis. To study mechanisms responsible for this down-regulation, we have analyzed the promoter of the human reelin gene. We show that the reelin promoter directs expression of a reporter construct in multiple human cell types: neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y), neuronal precursor cells (NT2), differentiated neurons (hNT) and hepatoma cells (HepG2).
Estrogen receptors (ER alpha/ER beta) are expressed in neuronal cells and exhibit a variety of activities in the central nervous system. ER activity is regulated in a ligand-dependent manner and by co-regulatory factors. Caveolin-1 is a recently identified co-activator of ER alpha mediating the ligand-independent activation of this steroid receptor. Here the influence of ERs on caveolin expression in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells as well as in rodent brain was investigated.
Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi = Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
Ethanol is a deleterious agent that causes various kinds of neuronal damage to both the developing and adult brain. Recent research on alcoholism implicates impaired function of neural stem cell (NSC) in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced brain dysfunction. We previously reported that the differentiation of NSCs into neurons was significantly influenced by ethanol.
OBJECTIVE: The emerging field of psychiatric epigenetics is constrained by the dearth of research methods feasible in living patients. With this focus, we report on two separate approaches, one in vitro and one in vivo, developed in our laboratory. METHOD: In the first approach, we isolated lymphocytes from 12 subjects and cultured their cells with either 0.7 mM valproic acid (VPA), 100 nM Trichostatin A (TSA), or DMSO (control) for 24h based upon previous dose response experiments.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) compact chromatin structure and repress gene transcription. In schizophrenia, clinical studies demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors are efficacious when given in combination with atypical antipsychotics. However, the molecular mechanism that integrates a better response to antipsychotics with changes in chromatin structure remains unknown.
The ability to resist stress is an important defensive function of a living body. Thus, elucidation of the mechanisms by which the brain resists stress could help to pave the way for new therapeutic strategies for stress-related psychiatric disorders including depression. The present review focuses on the roles of brain 5-HT1A receptor-mediated epigenetic mechanisms in the development of resistance to emotional stress.
Most current antimalarials for treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria fall into two broad drug families and target the food vacuole of the trophozoite stage. No antimalarials have been shown to target the brief extracellular merozoite form of blood-stage malaria. We studied a panel of 12 drugs, 10 of which have been used extensively clinically, for their invasion, schizont rupture, and growth-inhibitory activity using high-throughput flow cytometry and new approaches for the study of merozoite invasion and early intraerythrocytic development.